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P1CTONIANS 

AT HOME 
AND ABROAD 



BYREV.J.R 
MACPHIE MA. 





ELM TREE, EAST RIVER 
Under this tree Rev. Jas. McGregor preached the first sermon on the East River, Oct., 1786 



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SKETCHES OF PROFESSIONAL MEN AND 

WOMEN OF PICTOU COUNTY ITS 

HISTORY AND INSTITUTIONS 



* * 

REV. jf P? MACPHIE, M. A. 

AUTHOR OF " THE HOMELAND OF THE BIBLE 




JDtnkfjam JDrcss 

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 
U. S. A. 



Copyright, 1914, by J. P. MacPhie 



(ii) 



FOREWORD 

THE preparation of this book has been a labor of 
love. Although the author has been called to spend 
most of his life in other and distant fields, he has never 
wavered in his devotion to the place of his birth and the 
friends of his youth. It has at times been his dearest 
hope to repay in some measure, by some serviceable 
deed, the debt of gratitude which he owes to his native 
land. 

Hence the undertaking of this book, the aim of which 
is to rescue from oblivion the names, the deeds, the 
heroism of the pioneers of Pictou, and to show how not- 
able a contribution, in men and women, the county has 
made to the intellectual life and growth of the country. 

No fairer scenes than Pictou County presents can be 
found in the land. Merely as a piece of Mother Earth 
it is deserving of the most enthusiastic admiration and 
ardent attachment. Its beautiful elm-studded valleys, 
its clear, winding streams, its sunlit hills with their fertile 
fields gently sloping toward the sea, its bonnie, happy 
homes, its thriving towns, its peaceful villages, its in- 
finitely varied forests and even its rugged glens present 
charms which never pall. 

But the county's moral claim for its people's love and 
loyalty is stronger than the physical. No spot in our 
wide Dominion, of equal size and population, has contrib- 
uted so much to all that is best in our national life. No- 
where else have religion and education so effectually 
joined hands for the uplift of the people and the promo- 
tion of good. Nowhere have righteousness and truth 
been more genuinely wedded, or produced finer fruit- 
age. 

In support of these statements the evidence in this 
book is confidently submitted. The gathering of the 

(iii) 



evidence has been a difficult task. It is not claimed that 
it is either exhaustive or absolutely accurate, but the 
author has done his best, and he has had the hearty co- 
operation of many to whom he is sincerely grateful. 

It has been said that Pictou is noted for coal and 
clergymen. Great as is the yield of coal, yet that which 
is Pictou's proudest product is her men and women. 
In less than a hundred years she has given to the church 
nearly three hundred clergymen. She has sent forth one 
hundred and ninety physicians, sixty-three lawyers, forty 
professors, fifteen men and eleven women missionaries, 
eight college presidents, four judges, two governors, two 
premiers and a chief justice for the Province, besides a 
host of journalists, politicians and business men of note 
and name. 

There is inspiration in studying the lives of men and 
women. It stirs within us a deepening desire to imitate 
and achieve all that was best in their lives. If this book 
will help the youth of the land to do this, it will have 
accomplished the main purpose of the writer. 

Our fathers have left us a precious heritage and a 
rare record. We owe them the debt of a grateful remem- 
brance. "Happy are the people," says John Fiske, "that 
can look back upon the work of their fathers and in their 
heart of hearts pronounce it good." 

June 1, 1914 J. P. MacPhie 



(iv) 



TITLES OF CHAPTERS 

PAGE 
I. THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 1 

II. THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 33 

III. PlCTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 61 

IV. PlCTONIANS IN THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 105 

V. THE BENCH AND THE BAR 123 

VI. THE STORY OF PICTOU ACADEMY 135 

VII. PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 149 

VIII. PICTONIANS IN FOREIGN FIELDS 177 

IX. THE PRESS AND PRINTERS OF PICTOU 191 

X. PICTOU IN POLITICS 203 

XI. PICTOU IN THE BUSINESS WORLD. ...217 



(v) 



"A wise nation preserves its records, decorates the graves of 
its illustrious dead, repairs the great public structures, and fosters 
national pride and love of country by perpetual references to the 
sacrifices and glories of the past." Joseph Howe. 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

ELM TREE, EAST RIVER Frontispiece 

MAP OF PICTOU COUNTY Opp. Page 4 

LANDING OF THE HECTOR 8 

HON. D. C. FRASER 24 

PIONEER MINISTERS OF PICTOU 34 

HON. JAMES D. MCGREGOR 40 

GROUP OF DECEASED MINISTERS 54 

CHURCHES IN NEW GLASGOW 62 

CHURCHES IN PICTOU TOWN 66 

PROFESSIONAL MEN OF PICTOU 74 

GROUP OF RETIRED MINISTERS 78 

REV. WILLIAM FRASER, D. D. 84 

GROUP OF CHURCHES 90 

MINISTERS OF TODAY 94 

MINISTERS OF TODAY 96 

PROF. WILLIAM R. GRANT, M. D. 110 

THE BENCH AND THE BAR 126 

REV. THOS. McCULLOCH, D. D. 136 

PICTOU ACADEMY 140 

GROUP OF EDUCATIONISTS 144 

SIR WILLIAM DAWSON. LL. D. 150 

COLLEGE PRESIDENTS 156 

FOUR STUDENTS 162 

GROUP OF FOREIGN MISSIONARIES 178 

GROUP OF FOREIGN MISSIONARIES 186 

MISSIONARIES IN THE FOREIGN FIELD 188 

GROUP OF MEN IN PUBLIC LIFE 194 

MEN IN PROFESSIONAL AND PUBLIC LIFE 204 

TOWN OF PICTOU 220 

TOWN OF NEW GLASGOW 226. 



(vii) 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

Our sires brave hearts that crossed estranging seas, 

And broke the hush of the primeval wood, 

Who lit their candles in the solitude, 

And met the saffron morn upon their knees 

What though their homes were void of luxuries, 

Learning ne'er begged, nor altars smokeless stood, 

Nor Cheer nor Friendship lacked the joys their rude, 

Kind, log-heaped hearths could give, It is to these 

I bare my head! They wrought without the aid 

Invention brings, ere smoke of Industry 

Hung o'er these hills and vales; with care they made 

This place a garden of the mind; and we, 

Cradled in comfort, now bid Mem'ry hold 

The fragrance of their lives in jars of gold. 

Alexander L. Fraser. 



(viii) 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 
CHAPTER I 

THE "HOPE" PEOPLE 

THE beginnings of history-making in Pictou were 
modest; but they were highly promising if there is 
aught of force in the adage which says that well begun is 
half done. There was good augury in the very name of 
the brig "Hope," the first immigrant vessel which dropped 
anchor in the Harbor. Yet the future importance of 
Pictou was probably not even dreamed of by those con- 
nected with the little brig. At that time the enterprise 
doubtless looked hopeful mainly from a land-speculator's 
point of view. 

The "Hope," bearing officers of the Philadelphia Com- 
pany, so-called, and the families of half a dozen intending 
settlers, arrived at Pictou from Philadelphia, on June 
10, 1767. The Company had obtained a Royal grant of 
180,000 acres of land in the district. To this grant were 
attached the usual stringent settlement conditions. It 
was in compliance with those conditions that the expedi- 
tion had been sent out. The families who came by the 
"Hope," according to Dr. Patterson, were: Dr. John 
Harris, agent of the Company and his wife; Robert Pat- 
terson, the Company's surveyor, his wife and five children; 
James McCabe, his wife and six children; John Rogers, 
his wife and four children; Henry Cumminger, his wife 
and four or five children; and a sixth family of unknown 
name it may have been Hand. There is on record in 
the Pictou Registry, a deed to Recompense Hand of land 
adjoining that originally taken up by John Rogers. 

Of these pioneers the only name which has remained 
continuously prominent in the County, is that of Harris. 
J. Sim. Harris, the High Sheriff, is a lineal descendant, in 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

the fourth generation, of Dr. John Harris. He is the 
fourth Sheriff in succession in that family. None but a 
Harris has ever been Sheriff of Pictou County. 

No descendant of Robert Patterson, bearing his name, 
is now resident within the County, although his blood 
runs in the veins of a number of well-known Pictou 
families. A few of McCabe's descendants bearing his 
name are to be found in the County. John Rogers gave 
his name to the district since known as Rogers Hill. His 
descendants are few, the most distinguished of them being 
Rev. Anderson Rogers of Halifax, late Moderator of the 
Presbyterian Synod of the Maritime Provinces. The 
Cumminger name early disappeared from the County. 

The courageous little band which came in the "Hope" 
had to encounter the usual trials and difficulties of pioneer 
settlers in a densely wooded country, remote from human 
neighborhood. But they had plentiful supplies; were 
busy making improvements, and were cheered from time 
to time by the arrival of other families and individuals to 
join their settlement. Of the early followers of the"Hope" 
from Philadelphia the most important were Rev. James 
Lyon, a large shareholder of the Company, and Matthew 
Harris, an elder brother of Dr. John, who settled on the 
Davidson farm at West River, above the Saw Mill 
bridge. 

Additional settlers came from Truro. Of these the 
most noteworthy was William Kennedy, who located at 
the mouth of what has since been known as Saw Mill 
Brook, where he erected, in 1769, the mill from which the 
stream took its name. This mill was the first frame 
building erected in the County. 

Up to the 1st of January 1770, there had been 67 ar- 
rivals and four births at Pictou. But 36 had removed or 
died, and the total population was 84. The first census, 
then taken, sets forth that the settlement possessed 6 
horses, 16 oxen, 16 cows, 16 young cattle, 37 sheep and 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

10 swine. Dr. Harris is credited with the ownership of a 
fishing boat and a small vessel, the pioneer of Pictou's 
subsequent extensive mercantile fleet. The settlers had 
that year harvested 64 bushels of wheat and 60 of 
oats. 

The heads of families were : John Harris, Robert Patter- 
son, Robert McFadden, Henry Cumminger, James Mc- 
Cabe, Nathan Smith, Rev. James Lyon, Barnabas Mc- 
Gee, William Kennedy, Moses Blaisdell, William Aiken, 
George Oughterson, Thomas Skead, Matthew Harris, 
Barnett McNutt, James Archibald, Charles McKay and 
Robert Dickey. 

The "town" or centre of the settlement, was located 
opposite Brown's Point, at the mouth of Haliburton Creek, 
since generally known as the "Town Gut." This most 
unsuitable site had to be accepted because when the Phila- 
delphia settlers arrived, Colonel McNutt, that notorious 
Nova Scotia land-grabber, had secured a grant of all the 
shore lands from Brown's Point to the mouth of Pictou 
Harbor, and thence around the coast to Cariboo Harbor. 
It was not until the escheating of McNutt 's grant that the 
Harbor front was made available for settlement. After 
that, a village sprang up at Norway House Point. But 
it was only at a considerably later date that the present 
Town site began to be occupied. 

The nearest settlement to Pictou was at the head of 
Cobequid Bay, near what is now, the town of Truro. It 
was imperative that a safe means of access to this settle- 
ment, then known as Cobequid, should be immediately 
opened up. Accordingly, one of the first cares of the 
"Hope" settlers was to have a trail laid out between the 
two places. This path, known as the "Cobequid Road," 
was in no true sense of the word a road ; but it served most 
useful purposes. It was free from dangerous obstructions ; 
was clear-cut and direct, and could be easily traversed on 
foot or horseback. 



It seems rather singular that exact knowledge of the 
location of this most important land route should so soon 
have perished. Even Dr. Patterson appears to have been 
able to secure only vague information as to the location 
of parts of it. But it can be clearly traced through the 
land Registry office. The Cobequid Road followed the 
line of the present West River Road from the Town Gut 
to "Belmont," the Evans farm. Thence it ran along the 
West River "old road" to a point near Leithead's stone 
house. Thence it struck across the face of the hill back 
of Durham, following exactly the south-west line of James 
D. Maclellan's lands, and came out near the late Robert 
Patterson's house. Thence, following the same direction, 
it crossed Auchincairn to the Four Mile Brook Road, a 
short distance from the house of the late Thomas Rogers, 
Postmaster. Thence it followed the present Brook Roads 
to Mount Thorn, over the top of which it passed, and 
thence down the Salmon River to Cobequid, now Lower 
Truro. The complete oblivion into which the very exis- 
tence of this road had fallen, even among the grand-child- 
ren of the settlers to whom it had been so important, was 
curiously illustrated some forty years ago when a rusted 
cannon ball was picked up in the woods at Auchincairn. 
There was much speculation in the district at the time, as 
to how this old round shot could possibly have come there. 
It was not until long afterwards that recovered knowledge 
of the actual course of the Cobequid Road suggested a 
partial, but only a partial, explanation of the mystery. 
By whom or for what purpose such a piece of property as 
a cannon ball was being transported through the woods 
between Truro and Pictou, over the Cobequid Road, and 
how it came to be dropped in such a spot, cannot even be 
guessed. The Cobequid Road is said to have been laid 
out by Thomas Archibald and John Otterson of Truro 
assisted by John Rogers. 

The "Hope" pioneers with the exception of Rogers' 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

family, and possibly one other family, were all located 
along the north side of the West River estuary, from the 
Town Gut to the "Harbor Head," when the ship "Hector" 
with her contingent arrived. 

The Truro settlers had been advised of the coming of 
the "Hope," and had sent a delegation to meet and wel- 
come those on board. The delegation consisted of Samuel 
Archibald, father of the afterwards famous S. G. W. Archi- 
bald, John Otterson, Thomas Troop and Ephraim Howard. 
Tradition says that the two last-mentioned bestowed their 
names as they passed on the outstanding hills still known 
as Mount Thorn and Mount Ephraim. 

The whole County was densely wooded at that time. 
On the shores of the Harbor, extending up the river valleys 
and clothing the hills were magnificent growths of pine, 
almost every tree a gigantic model of its kind. The grove 
which covered the present site of the town is said to have 
been notably fine. To the north, more particularly 
around the shores of Cariboo, there were splendid stretches 
of Oakland. The coast-waters and streams were over- 
flowing with fish, the woods with game. With shelter, 
fuel and food thus at hand in richest abundance, the 
original pioneer band and the succeeding parties of settlers 
can scarcely have suffered the harrowing experiences which 
later imaginations have conjured up. No doubt they 
endured certain trials, and privations, like all pioneers. 
But they were young and vigorous; and their healthy 
joys must have far more than counterbalanced their 
troubles. The physical delights of pioneering are too often 
overlooked in listening to the reminiscences of old men and 
women regarding their youthful days in the wilds. 

One thing is certain the children of the pioneers never 
ceased to regret the good old times, "the golden age" of 
their youth, when they and their neighbors' young folk 
gathered in the evenings, around blazing wood fires in 
wide, hospitable, log-cabin chimney places, and when 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

social intercourse had a peculiar freedom and charm, which 
was sadly missed in later and supposedly more happy 
years, of greater seeming comfort. 

The "Hope" settlers had completed the political or- 
ganization of the Pictou district, and their members had 
been materially increased from other sources before the 
next large band of immigrants joined them, six years later. 
These are facts which should be duly kept in mind, be- 
cause they suggest a very different idea of the relative 
importance of the two first bands of pioneers than that 
generally entertained. They also shed valuable light on 
the real condition of the Pictou settlement when the ship 
"Hector" arrived in 1773. 

Effective municipal government had, at that date, been 
established. The following is a list of its officials in 
February, 1775: 

John Harris Clerk of District 

Robert Meresom 

John Harris Overseers of Poor 

James Fulton 
Moses Blaisdale 

William Kennedy Surveyors of Lumber 

William Aiken Constable 

James Fulton Clerk of Market 

Abraham Slater Culler of Fish 

Before the "Hector" arrived, McNutt's grant had been, 
in 1770, escheated to the Crown. The whole Harbor 
front and Cariboo shore were thus thrown open to settle- 
ment. The "Hector" reached Pictou on September 15, 
1773. Some forty 'or more years ago this date was arbi- 
trarily selected as Pictou's "Natal Day," a selection made 
for purely temporary purposes, which has been largely 
responsible for the popular modern belief that the real 
history of Pictou began with the coming of the "Hector." 
But the truth is, that September 15 was chosen because 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

June 10, the "Hope" day was past at the time when it 
became desirable to hold a public picnic for a charitable 
purpose. 

THE "HECTOR" PEOPLE 

Those who reached Pictou by the "Hector," on Septem- 
ber 15, 1773, numbered, according to one statement, 189; 
according to another, 179. On January 1, 1770, there 
were 84 in the Pictou settlement. Probably a good many 
others had arrived in the intervening three years ; so that 
had the whole "Hector"contingent remained in the County 
they would scarcely have outnumbered those already in 
the settlement. But it appears from the list given by 
Dr. Patterson, which was compiled by William Mackenzie, 
who ultimately settled at Loch Broom, and was admittedly 
the only specially educated member of the party, that of 
57 heads of families or single men who came by the "Hec- 
tor," only 27 remained in Pictou. Thirty almost im- 
mediately left for other parts of the Province. Even of 
the 27 who found ultimate resting-place in Pictou several 
at first went elsewhere; and they or their children only 
returned at later dates, when the settlement had been 
very materially increased by immigration from various 
other sources. These facts indicate that the "Hope" set- 
tlement was far from being submerged or eclipsed by the 
"Hector" party. It seems unlikely that those from the 
"Hector" who actually settled in the County numbered 
as many as the "Hope" people whom they found in original 
possession. Moreover, the "Hector" element was much 
weakened in influence by two special causes. 

With the exception of William MacKenzie, Alexander 
Cameron, George McConnell, Alexander Fraser and John 
Patterson, not many of its members could speak English 
at all fluently; and they scattered themselves over the 
County, while the "Hope" people were compactly settled 
together on the Harbor front. It was the descendants of the 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

"Hector" people rather than the first-comers of them who 
made their influence felt in the District. But there were 
certain marked exceptions to this which will be duly noted. 

The party had been recruited from many parts of the 
North of Scotland. Of those who shipped at Glasgow, 
John Patterson settled at Pictou ; and George McConnell, 
great-grandfather of the late Robert McConnell, the well- 
known journalist, at West River. Of those from Invernes- 
shire, William McKay settled on the East River, near 
Stellarton along with Roderick McKay, Colin McKay, X 
Donald Cameron and Donald McKay; Hugh Fraser 
settled at McLennan's Brook; Donald McDonald at 
Middle River; Colin Douglas at Middle River; Hugh 
Fraser at Twelve Mile House, West River; Alexander 
Fraser, at Middle River; James Grant, settled first in 
King's County but returned to upper East River; Alex- 
ander Cameron settled at Loch Broom; Alexander Ross, 
at Middle River; Colin McKenzie at East River, near 
New Glasgow; William MacKenzie at Loch Broom; John 
McLennan at the mouth of McLennan's Brook; William 
McLennan, his relative on the east side of West River; 
above Durham; Alexander Falconer, near Hopewell. Of 
those from Southerlandshire, Kenneth Fraser, after first 
settling at Londonderry returned and settled at Middle 
River, back of Green Hill; Walter Murray settled at 
Merigomish; James McLeod, at Middle River; Hugh Mc- 
Leod at West River; William Matheson settled first at 
Londonderry, but returned to Rogers Hill. Of those 
above-named, the following impressed themselves specially 
on the history of the County : 

William McKay, who settled at East River became a 
Justice of the Peace; and exercised much influence in his 
day. One of his sons, William, prepared a map of Nova 
Scotia, which was published in London and was regarded 
as authoritative for many years. Another son, Alexander, 
owned the town site of New Glasgow. 

8 



THE PIONEERS OP PICTOU 

Roderick McKay of Beauly, Invernesshire, also settled 
at East River. One of his daughters was married to Rev. 
Dr. McGregor, the pioneer Presbyterian clergyman of the 
County, and was the grandmother of James D. McGregor 
the present Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. Another 
of Roderick McKay's daughters was the mother of the 
late J. D. B. Fraser, of Pictou, who, besides being promi- 
nent in business, was a distinguished leader in the early 
temperance movement. R. P. Fraser, Esq., Collector of 
Customs at Pictou, is his son. Roderick McKay's son, the 
late Robert McKay, Esq., was long Keeper of the Rolls of 
the County. His grandson, John U. Ross, K. C., is 
Chairman of the Nova Scotia Public Utilities Commission. 

Alexander Cameron settled at Loch Broom which was so 
named because of its resemblance, from the Harbor ap- 
proaches, to Loch Broom in Invernesshire. He was of 
notable family, being a near relative of Cameron of Lochiel, 
who figured so prominently at the battle of Culloden, 
which young Alexander Cameron witnessed as a runaway 
boy of fifteen. Many distinguished Pictou County names 
are in his line of descent. Among them, Rev. Alexander 
Blaikie, D. D., long a leading clergyman of Boston; 
Thomas Fraser, a Californian Senator, and Alexander 
Fraser, his brother who constructed the first ship railway 
across the Isthmus of Panama; the late E. M. Macdonald, 
M.P., a prominent journalist and at the time of his death 
Collector of Customs at Halifax; his brother A. C. Mac- 
donald of Pictou, barrister, at one time Speaker of the Nova 
Scotia House of Assembly and father of the late C. D. 
Macdonald, barrister, of Arthur C. Macdonald, a promi- 
nent Consulting Engineer and capitalist of London, Eng- 
land, and of Mrs. James Primrose of Pictou; John D. 
Macdonald, late Treasurer of the County of Pictou and 
his sons, E. M. Macdonald, K. C., M. P., barrister, at 
present representing the County in the Dominion Parlia- 
ment, Rev. Peter M. Macdonald, a leading clergyman and 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

literary man of Toronto, and John D. Macdonald, editor 
and proprietor of the Pictou "Advocate"; the late Hon. 
W. D. R. Cameron, formerly of Durham, Member for 
Guysborough County of the Legislative Council of Nova 
Scotia; William Cameron, ex-M. P. P., at present Munici- 
pal Treasurer of the County, and Mrs. W. E. Maclellan 
of Halifax. This partial list of Alexander Cameron's 
better-known descendants furnishes striking evidence of 
the possible value of one good settler to a new country. 

Alexander Fraser, settled at Middle River. He also 
was of excellent birth. He was an immediate descendant 
of the Erasers, Lords Lovat. Along with the noble head 
of that House he was deeply involved in the "Forty-Five." 
Two of his brothers were slain at Culloden. His wife was 
Marion Campbell, youngest daughter of the Laird of 
Skreigh, Invernesshire, who had raised a troop for Prince 
Charlie, and was wounded at Culloden. A son of this 
couple was the first native-born Pictonian. From them 
descended the Rocklin Frasers, so prominent in the in- 
dustrial life of the County. John Fraser of Hopewell, is 
a grandson. His son, Thomas, the "Beachcomber" of 
the Morning Chronicle and formerly editor of the Halifax 
"Daily Echo," is at present a leading citizen of Saskatoon. 
Mrs. J. P. Esdaile of Halifax is Alexander Fraser's great 
grandaughter. Dr. Patterson states that Fraser was in 
most "comfortable circumstances" when he left Scotland. 

William MacKenzie ultimately settled at Loch Broom, 
beside his particular friend and associate, Alexander 
Cameron, after having spent some years at Liverpool, 
Nova Scotia, where he married a daughter of one of the 
pioneer settlers of that place, a lineal descendant of one of 
the "Pilgrim Fathers," who came to Massachusetts Bay 
in the "Mayflower," in 1621. William MacKenzie also 
was of good family. His father was a gentleman of title 
and a scion of the Seaforth MacKenzie family. Young 
MacKenzie was a student of eighteen, when he left Scot- 

10 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

land. He engaged himself as schoolmaster to the "Hector" 
party in a spirit of youthful adventure, but pressed also, 
no doubt, by the necessities of the times. The party 
broke up at Pictou, and he was never required to exercise 
his assumed vocation ; but he became, which was of much 
more importance, the historian of the party. It was from 
his memoranda and diaries that Dr. Patterson obtained 
most of his definite authentic information concerning the 
"Hector" party. He had only one son, and nearly all of 
his grandchildren removed to the United States where, 
without exception, they prospered in business or industry. 
Only two of his lineal descendants are now in Nova Scotia 
Mrs. W. E. Maclellan of Halifax and Mrs. John Carson 
of Pictou. 

He was known in his day as the "Peacemaker." It was 
he who donated the site of the first church erected in 
Pictou County, which was situated at Loch Broom, close 
to the east shore of the West River estuary, on lands lat- 
terly owned by the late Duncan McCabe. 

John Patterson, grandfather of the late Rev. Dr. Patter- 
son, the painstaking and talented historian of the County, 
settled near the future town, where he became a prosper- 
ous business man, a Justice of the Peace and a leading 
, citizen. Several of his descendants, besides the late Dr. 
Patterson have been prominent as public and business 
men in Colchester and other counties of the Province. 
His Honor, Judge Patterson, of the County Court, New 
Glasgow, is a son of Dr. Patterson and a great grandson of 
John Patterson of the "Hector". 

Alexander Falconer, who settled near Hopewell, was 
the grandfather of the late Rev. Dr. Falconer, a few years 
ago Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church in Canada, whose two talented and highly 
distinguished sons are Dr. R. A. Falconer, President of the 
University of Toronto, and Dr. James W. Falconer, of the 
Presbyterian College, Halifax, 

11 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

William Matheson who settled at Rogers Hill was the 
father of the late William Matheson, of Durham, grand- 
father of the late David Matheson, barrister of Pictou, 
and great grandfather of E. S. Matheson Town Engineer, 
Yarmouth. 

Should it seem surprising to any that so many men of 
good birth came to Pictou among the pioneers, it is only 
necessary to point out that the same thing is now happen- 
ing in the Northwest. Sons of some of the best families 
in the United Kingdom are at present homesteaders and 
working farmers on the Canadian prairies. A few years 
ago the titled head of one of the oldest Baronetcies in 
Ireland died as a billiard-marker in a Winnipeg Saloon; 
and he was no scapegrace. He had gone to the West in 
the hope of restoring the fallen family fortunes, and had 
accepted the first employment available. It was only 
after his death that his identity was disclosed, although 
without proclaiming his title he had not changed his 
name. 

Speaking of the times when Pictou was first settled, in 
connection with the fact that a noble Lord, a member of 
the Scottish House of Peers and the representative of one 
of the oldest families in Scotland was a glover in Edin- 
burgh, Burke, compiler of "Burke's Peerage" and "Landed 
Gentry", in his "Vicissitudes of Families" states that a 
Nobleman, one of whose family afterwards settled in 
Pictou County, ' 'used to stand for years in the Old Town, 
Edinburgh, selling gloves to those present ; for, according 
to the fashion of the time, a new pair was required for 
every dance. The only occasion in which he was absent 
from his post was at the ball following the election of a 
representative Peer, when he appeared in full dress, and 
joined with those present in the dance. It may be added 
that sons of the best families in Scotland are often found 
at trades in these times, arising from the difficulty of being 
provided for." 

12 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

The great disadvantage under which most of the "Hec- 
tor" settlers labored was lack of means. The fact that 
they were able to emigrate at all, at their own charge in 
those days of "hard times" is proof positive that they 
were the most prosperous and enterprising of their con- 
temporaries, and that they were much better off than the 
average of their countrymen at that time. Scotland was 
then in a state of extreme financial and industrial depres- 
sion. With reference to that period the latter half of the 
eighteenth century Lord Rosebery, in addressing the 
annual meeting of the Edinburgh Savings Bank, in 1909, 
stated that "there was not then more than two or three 
hundred thousand pounds of current money in all Scot- 
land," whereas at the date of his speech there were "over 
fourteen million pounds of deposits in the two savings 
Banks of Edinburgh and Glasgow alone." Lord Rosebery 
said, and his words are well worth pondering by all who 
would form just conceptions of the character of the "Hec- 
tor" settlers in Pictou, "Our great grandfathers my 
great grandfather, at any rate was living at that time. 
Our great grandfathers did great things in those days on 
a mess of pottage they had no more, but with it they 
helped to mould the Empire. They maintained their poor 
without legal compulsion. They sought nothing from 
external help; and they laid, in their nakedness, and 
barrenness, the foundations of the prosperity which reigns 
in Scotland at this moment. None of us would care to 
live as they did. Some of the poorest in our country at 
present would shrink from the manner of life which was 
endured by some of the noblest in those days. We should 
not care to share their privations; but we should not be 
unwilling to be convinced that we possess their indepen- 
dence, their self-reliance, their self-respect; and I regard 
that as the greatest blessing resulting out of thrift in- 
dependence of character. Whether Scottish pride arose 
out of Scottish thrift, or whether Scottish thrift arose out 

13 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

of Scottish pride, I really cannot decide; but they are 
closely intertwined so closely that you cannot perhaps 
separate them. But, at any rate, the combination pro- 
duced a character which has governed the country." 

These are striking facts, vouched for by a very great 
and reliable man. Dr. Patterson's invaluable history of 
Pictou County makes it clear beyond dispute that the 
"Hector" settlers possessed "the thrift" and "the pride" 
of their country in the highest degree. The subsequent 
lives of them and their descendants have demonstrated 
beyond question that they possessed also the "governing 
character." 

At the close of 1773, there were thus in Pictou County, 
two very distinct pioneer strains, almost equal in num- 
bers the "Hope" settlers of mixed American, English, 
South of Scotland and North of Ireland origin, who had 
been some years in the country, and the "Hector" settlers, 
of north of Scotland extraction, newly arrived and, for 
the immediate time being, a charge rather than a help to 
the struggling settlement, although they contributed so 
materially to its development and progress in later years. 

THE SOUTH OF SCOTLAND PEOPLE 

A year and a half after the arrival of the "Hector" came 
the third and last band of those who may properly be 
called the pioneers of Pictou. These were the south of 
Scotland people, sometimes erroneously spoken of as the 
"Dumfries Settlers." 

Their party was organized to take up lands in Prince 
Edward Island. They chartered their own vessel; sailed 
from the port of Annan, in Dumfriesshire, and arrived at 
Georgetown in the spring of 1773. Although exceptionally 
well outfitted, they were immediately overtaken by bad 
luck. 

A great plague of mice destroyed their first season's 
crop. The following spring they procured seed from Nova 

14 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

Scotia, and re-planted; but the mice ate the very seed in 
the ground. That autumn, to crown their misfortunes, 
supplies which they had brought from Scotland and stored 
at Georgetown Harbor were plundered by riotous New 
England sailors and fishermen, who were ashore on a 
drunken orgie on the eve of sailing for their homes. The 
settlers were left in dire straits for food; and suffered in- 
tensely during the succeeding winter. In the following 
spring, 1775, they removed in a body to Pictou. There 
were thirteen families and one single man in the party. 
With one exception they settled permanently in Pictou 
County. 

Seven of the party located at West River. These were 
Anthony Maclellan, William Clark, David Stewart, William 
Smith, Joseph Richards, John McLean and Charles Blaikie. 
Four settled on the Middle River, namely, John Crockett, 
Robert Marshall, Robert Brydone and John Smith. Two, 
Thomas Turnbull and Anthony Culton, went to the East 
River. One, Wellwood Waugh, remained in Pictou for a 
time, but later removed to Colchester County where he 
gave his name to Waugh's River. His half brother, Wil- 
liam Campbell, the bachelor of the party, settled at the 
Beaches, a mile below the present Town of Pictou. 

The members of this party added a new and specially 
valuable element to the primitive Pictou settlement. 
They came from one of the best agricultural districts in 
Scotland. They had been closely associated with the 
land all their lives. Several of them were sons of land- 
owners; others had been tenant farmers. They knew 
how best to deal with the soil, and they had the means to 
enable them to put their knowledge into practice. They 
lost no time in getting to work. Most of them prospered 
from the beginning. This party, more than any of its 
predecessors, directly and indirectly influenced the future 
of Pictou. They seem to have been well satisfied with 
their new home ; and at once, by means of letters to those 

15 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

whom they had left behind, became the most effective of 
immigration agents. Through their representations their 
relatives and acquaintances in the South of Scotland were 
directed to Pictou; and continued coming in increasing 
numbers, for many years. 

The original members of the party were mostly from 
Galloway, that famous, old Principality in the extreme 
southwest of Scotland, made up of the Shires of Kirkcud- 
bright and Wigton; but a few of them were from Dum- 
friesshire and Ayr, or had connections in those counties. 
A glance at the names of those most prominent in the 
early commercial, industrial and political life of Pictou 
will show that a large proportion of them were from one or 
other of the south Scottish counties above mentioned. 
The monuments in the old Cemetery of Pictou, and the 
still older Durham Cemetery reveal an overwhelming 
preponderance of Galloway, Dumfries and Ayrshire 
names. 

These south of Scotland settlers imported live-stock, 
seeds and fruit-trees from the land of their birth. At 
West River traces of the famous black cattle of Galloway 
were distinctly discernible not many years ago ; and quite 
possibly are yet to be found. The sturdy Galloway breed 
of horses, too, left its mark in the county. But the Gallo- 
way people made a far deeper and infinitely more valuable 
impress on the social life of the county. From them, to 
mention an outstanding name, came Rev. Thomas McCul- 
loch, the founder of Pictou Academy, who, although him- 
self a native of Renfrewshire, was the descendant of one of 
the oldest and most honorable of the baronial families of 
Kirkcudbrightshire, with a history dating back almost to 
the Norman invasion. The names of Thomas, Michael 
and William McCulloch, so familiar in Pictou history, are 
distinctly traceable through hundreds of years of the annals 
of Galloway. John Dawson, another of Pictou's worthy 
early settlers, who, following the southern pioneers, came 

16 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

to Pictou in 1791, and whose great grandson Mr. Bonar 
Law is now leader of the Conservative party in Great 
Britain, was also a Galloway man, a native of the Parish 
of Irongray in Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Of the members of the south of Scotland party, Wellwood 
Waugh, as already stated, did not remain long in Pictou. 
He was of the Waughs, Lairds of Barnbarroch, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. His father had married a daughter of Dr. 
Wellwood, of London, hence the name "Wellwood." 
After the death of her first husband, Mrs. Waugh married 
a Mr. Campbell, and had a son, William Campbell, who 
came to Pictou with his half-brother Waugh, and settled 
at the Beaches. His sons, in after years, went to Tata- 
magouche where they entered into commercial and ship- 
building enterprises, and became prominently identified 
with the public life of Colchester County. Mrs. Patter- 
son and Mrs. John S. Maclean of Halifax are William 
Campbell's granddaughters, as was also the late Mrs. 
Howard Primrose, Pictou. 

Of the two members of this party, Thomas Turnbull, 
and Anthony Culton, who settled on the East River, there 
are few descendants bearing their names in the County. 
Dr. Albert Culton of Cumberland County is a great grand- 
son of Anthony Culton. 

Of the four who settled on the Middle River, John Smith 
early lost his life by drowning. His descendants if any 
are unknown. John Crockett's descendants are still to 
be found on the Middle River and a number of them in 
Upper Stewiacke, Colchester County, to which place one 
of his sons removed. Most of Robert Marshall's descend- 
ants bearing his name, have removed to the United States. 
David Marshall and Robert Brown, merchants of Pictou, 
are his great grandsons. There are few of the Brydone 
name now left in the County, but a large number of Robert 
Brydone's descendants remain; among them have been 
two clergymen, three lawyers and four physicians. 

17 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Of those who went to the West River, Anthony Maclel- 
lan settled at Durham where he purchased a large block 
of land on the west side of the River. In addition, he 
owned lands purchased from one of the Blaikies on the 
east-side of the River opposite Durham, which were re- 
conveyed by his son Anthony Maclellan, junior, to James 
Blaikie by deed dated February 23, 1800. It was out of 
this lot that Anthony Maclellan set aside the site of the 
old West River Church and of the older part of the West 
River Cemetery in which he was the first man buried, in 
the year 1786. A Mrs. Gerard was interred there a year 
earlier. With this exception, Anthony Maclellan's is 
the oldest marked grave in Pictou County. 

His eldest son James, was killed in 1793, by falling from 
a building which was being erected near the Ten Mile 
bridge. His remaining son, Anthony, succeeded to his 
property. Of his three daughters, Ann, was married first 
to William Smith and after his death to Donald McLeod ; 
Catherine, to Joseph Richards, grandfather of the late 
Rev. John Richards; and Janet to John Collie, whose 
grandson is Dr. J. R. Collie, of River John and great 
grandson Dr. J. R. M. Collie of London, England. A 
somewhat striking incident, in this connection, was the 
marriage, at the same place and date, of the widowed Mrs. 
Smith and her daughter to Donald McLeod and his son, 
who by these marriages became respectively the forefathers 
of Judge John D. McLeod of Pictou and Rev. John M. 
McLeod, formerly of Charlottetown, and later of Vancou- 
ver, B. C. 

Anthony Maclellan was of the Maclellans of Bombie, 
Hereditary Sheriffs of Galloway. He was born in 1720 
and was fifty-three years of age when he left Scotland. 
In the list of his descendants are to be found the names of 
thirteen clergymen, six barristers, seven physicians, one 
member of the Dominion Parliament, many successful 
business men, among them the late John S. Maclean of 

18 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

Halifax, the late Daniel Macdonald, Collector of Customs, 
Pictou, the late Robert McConnell of the Finance Depart- 
ment, Ottawa, W. E. Maclellan of Halifax, Post Office In- 
spector for Nova Scotia, and, last but not least, Robert 
Maclellan, LL.D., the present honored Principal of Pictou 
Academy. 

On the east side of the River, opposite to Anthony Mac- 
lellan settled Charles Blaikie. His lands were extensive, 
including at one time or another all those now or lately 
occupied by his descendants on Green Hill, and all of the 
David Matheson farm, opposite Durham, now owned by 
Mr. Hamblin. Charles Blaikie, too, was in very comfort- 
able circumstances on his arrival. He was a skillful 
farmer, and the family have always been prosperous. One 
of his early descendants was the late Rev. Alexander 
Blaikie, D.D., long a prominent Clergyman in Boston. 
Another is Mr. Blaikie of Londonderry, a wealthy retired 
merchant, at one time a business partner of the late A. W. 
McLelan, Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. 

Next above Anthony Maclellan, on the west side of the 
River, settled William Clark on lands all of which have 
ever since been continuously held by his descendants. 
No farmers in the County have been more enterprising 
and successful than they. Among the descendants of 
William Clark have been three clergymen of the Presby- 
terian Church. 

Next above William Clark settled David Stewart on 
lands which are now in the possession of his great grand- 
son, Robert Stewart. The Stewart name has at all times 
been synonymous with integrity. Among Robert Stew- 
art's descendants are the two Drs. Collie above named. 

Next above Robert Stewart settled William Smith, 
where his grandson Wilson Smith, now resides. He was 
descended from a Dumfriesshire land-owning family, 
members of which had borne titles of honor. He too was 
possessed of considerable means. A milling industry was 

19 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

early established at his place, which proved highly success- 
ful and was of great benefit to the surrounding country. 
His son, the late Anthony Smith, father of Wilson 
Smith and grandfather of James W. Smith of Pictou, head 
of the Atlantic Milling Company, was long a prominent 
and active member of the old Court of Sessions for Pictou 
County. This family too, has contributed most gener- 
ously to the professional as well as to the business life of 
the Province. Among William Smith's descendants have 
been one member of the Dominion Parliament, six clergy- 
men and three prominent barristers. 

Next above William Smith settled Joseph Richards, on 
the lands occupied by his descendants until Robert Rich- 
ards removed some thirty years ago to Manitoba, where 
he and his family now reside. A brother of his, Rev. John 
Richards, a Presbyterian clergyman, was called to Ontario, 
where he passed his life. 

Above Joseph Richards settled John Maclean, the far- 
thest south of the members of this party. He was of 
Dumfriesshire family. Rev. John Maclean of Richibucto, 
N. B., the father of the late John S. Maclean of Halifax, 
was his grandson. John Maclean, arriving in July, 1775, 
was one of the first-chosen elders of the first Presbyterian 
congregation organized in Pictou County, to which Rev. 
Dr. McGregor was called to minister in the autumn of 
1786. The family have ever since been prominent in 
Church work. The late Howard Maclean, of Halifax, 
one of the most promising young barristers in Nova Scotia 
when his untimely death occurred was a great grandson 
of John Maclean, as was also the late J. J. Maclean of 
Hopewell. Mrs. George Arthur Bayne of Winnipeg is a 
great granddaughter. 

With such settlers on its banks it is not surprising that 
the West River should so long have been the ecclesiastical 
and educational centre of the County. To Durham was 
early moved the first Presbyterian Church, located origi- 

20 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

nally at Loch Broom. Durham did not receive its present 
name until the time of the late Lord Durham in Canada. 
The name was the suggestion of the late William Graham, 
merchant, and was, confirmed at a public meeting held for 
the purpose. The late Miss Margaret Cameron of Dur- 
ham distinctly remembered the meeting, and that it was 
on Mr. Graham's motion that the name Durham was 
chosen. At the West River church all those settled around 
the Harbor, including the people of the Town, continued 
to worship until Rev. Thomas McCulloch arrived in 1803 
when a separate congregation was organized in Pictou. 
In Durham Cemetery most of the pioneer settlers of West 
Pictou are buried. To Durham, at a later date, the Pres- 
byterian Theological Seminary for Nova Scotia was re- 
moved, and there established and conducted for a number 
of years. 

But Durham, as a village, did not start until 1822. The 
first lot was sold on March 19, of that year, by Anthony 
Maclellan, junior, to John Henderson, shoemaker. It 
was the half-acre lot, at the lower end of the village, on 
which Waller's blacksmith shop stands. The price paid 
was 14 pounds, 10 shillings not a bad price for a begin- 
ning. But on April 13, 1824, two years later, Henderson 
bought the adjacent half-acre lot, for which he paid 25 
pounds. Henderson must have been prospering, for on 
June 14, 1826, he bought 30 acres of land in the rear of his 
first two purchases for which he paid 100 pounds. Dur- 
ham seems to have been experiencing a "boom" at this 
time. On May 16, 1830, Alexander MacDonald black- 
smith, bought an acre lot adjoining Henderson's lots, 
price 50 pounds. Two years later, on August 15, 1832, a 
large lot, in the southern angle of the Rogers Hill road 
was sold for 125 pounds. The following day it was re- 
sold to J. R. Ritchie for 175 pounds. 

From this time on, during a number of years, Durham 
grew and prospered greatly, owing to the development of 

21 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

the timber trade of which it was a large purchasing centre. 
At one time it had four inns three of them "licensed," 
and many places of general business. It had mechanical 
establishments of almost every kind; two churches, and 
the Presbyterian Seminary. In 1849, Durham Post Office 
ranked fifth in the Province in revenue collected, being, in 
this respect, at that time ahead of New Glasgow. The 
Post Offices, with a larger revenue than that of Durham 
were Halifax, Yarmouth, Truro and Pictou. With the 
decay of the timber trade Durham fell into rapid decline. 
But the surrounding country has lost none of its solid and 
long-established prosperity. 

THE EARLY SETTLERS OF THE EAST RIVER 

The East River is well known for the variety and the 
beauty of its scenery. On its banks are Springville, 
Bridgeville, and Sunny Brae, villages of abundant peace 
and plenty. It is well known for its rich deposits of iron 
and lime ; its vales and hills, its towering elms and winding 
river, but it is still more famous for the men and women 
it has produced; for the district from Church ville to Ker- 
rowgare, a distance of about fifteen miles, has given thirty- 
five clergymen to the Presbyterian Church, a Gover- 
nor, a Chief Justice and a Premier to the Province. 

What a community produces along educational and 
religious lines depends not a little upon its antecedents. 
The early settlers of the East River were a sturdy stock, 
a sober, stalwart worshipping set of men and women, with 
iron in their blood, and a burning love in their hearts for 
the Church and the School. They yoked education and 
religion together, and the combination produced a fine 
type of men and moralities. The writer, thirty years ago, 
taught the Shorter Catechism in the public school at 
Sunny Brae. 

As far as can be ascertained the first settler in Church- 
ville was John Robertson. He emigrated from the High- 

22 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

lands of Scotland and arrived in 1784, in Pictou. He was 
a brother-in-law of Roderick McKay, who was one of the 
first settlers on the East River. The first clearing Rob- 
ertson made in Church ville was where John Robertson, 
miller, once resided. 

John Fraser was among the first settlers of Springville. 
To distinguish him from others of the same clan he was 
called Iain Ruaidh, or Red John. He settled about 
140 years ago on the place now known as the Holmes Farm, 
where he built the first frame house in Springville. It is 
still standing. Later, the property was bought by Senator 
Holmes and here he always lived and ended his days. 
The house is low, but comfortable, reminding one of "the 
lowroofed house of Socrates." Here the Hon. Simon H. 
Holmes, once Premier of the Province, was born and bred. 

John Fraser, Red, had three sons James, Donald and 
William who settled in the community. One of his 
daughters married Simon Fraser, Basin: she was the 
mother of Thomas Fraser, Foreman, and consequently, 
grandmother of Graham Fraser, the Iron King of New 
Glasgow. Another daughter, married Mr. Fraser of Mc- 
Lennans Mountain and was the mother of William Fraser, 
Postmaster, New Glasgow. 

James, his eldest son, always called Seumas Iain Ruaidh, 
was a devout man and well known for his honesty. He 
raised a large family, who were all of an intellectual turn. 
It was James Fraser who gave the name Springville to 
the place from the many sparkling streams in the vicinity. 

John Fraser, eldest son of James Fraser, who went 
always by the name of "Catach" was quite a celebrity 
in his day. His second son, Donald was the geologist of 
the East River. His second daughter was mother of 
James A. Fraser, Editor of the Eastern Chronicle. 

James Iain Ruaidh and David McLean were near neigh- 
bors and each had an inexhaustible lime quarry on his 
farm. In 1836, three thousand bushels of lime were manu- 

23 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

factured and sold at the Albion Mines. In the same year 
twenty-five hundred tons of square timber were rafted 
down the river by the athletic sons of Sunny Brae the 
Chisholms, Kennedys, Thomsons, McDonalds and Mc- 
Intoshes. David McLean was the father of the Rev. 
James Maclean D. D., and Dr. Duncan Maclean, both 
settled for a long time in Shubenacadie, N. S. 

James Grant, one of the passengers on the Hector settled 
first in King's Co., N. S. He came from Glen Urquhart, 
Scotland. He was married and some of his children 
were born in the old country. He moved from King's Co. 
to Cariboo, Pictou Co., and lived there for some years. 
Before coming to this country he gained some knowledge 
of milling. By this time the Upper Settlement people be- 
gan to raise considerable quantities of grain, especially 
wheat, but they had no mill to convert it into flour. So 
they persuaded James Grant to leave Cariboo and move 
to the East River. This he did, and settled at Mill- 
stream in 1790. He erected a mill on a stream issuing 
from Grant's Lake, on a site some twenty rods further 
down than the one now occupied by Grant's Mill. This 
was the first regular gristmill on the East River. 

James Grant died in February, 1822, age ninety-seven. 
He is described as a quiet, peaceful man. He lived for 
some years before his death on a farm subsequently owned 
by Duncan McPhie. When James Grant died, there were 
twelve families in Millstream and Lime Brook: Duncan 
Grant, James Grant, dyer, Alexander Grant, miller, Robert 
Grant, elder, John Fraser, James Fraser, David McLean, 
Donald Fraser, Duncan McPhie, Donald Mor Fraser, 
David Mclntosh, and Donald Cameron. 

James Grant had four sons and two or three daughters. 
One of his sons, Duncan, died in 1847 and was buried at 
Springville Bridge, and was either the first or one of the 
first buried there. He once owned the farm on which the 
Rev. Angus McGillivray lived and died. 

24 




HON. D. C. ERASER 
LATE LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR OF THE PROVINCE 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

His sons, Alexander and Robert were men of influence 
and note and had much to do with the making of the life 
and the growth of the community. They succeeded their 
father in the milling business and were leaders in the Church 
and the State. Alexander Grant was married to Nellie 
McKay. The Rev. Robert Grant, the historian of the 
East River was their son. James, eldest son of Alexander 
Grant and Nellie McKay, was known as the Dyer. He 
owned woolen mills near Springville. His sons Alexander, 
John Walter, Hugh and Robert succeeded him. 

Robert Grant was married to Mary, daughter of James 
Robertson. He had three sons; James, who owned a saw 
mill at the head of Grant's Lake and was for many years 
an elder under the Rev. Mr. McGillivray; Alexander 
Robert, who owned a gristmill on Millstream; and Dr. 
William R. Grant, a distinguished professor in Pennsyl- 
vania Medical College. One of his daughters, married 
John Fraser, Basin. Another was the wife of Colin 
Robertson, Churchville. 

In 1784, a settlement of disbanded soldiers was made 
further up the river. They came to Pictou at the close 
of the American War. They were, originally, from the 
Highlands of Scotland. 

The first who came was James Fraser, Big James, who 
in company with Donald McKay, elder, settled on the 
intervale a little below- where St. Paul's Church now 
stands. He and fifteen others took up a tract of over 
three thousand acres, extending up to Samuel Cameron's 
on the east side of the river, and to James Fraser's, Cullo- 
den, on the west side. They were a sober and industrious 
class of people and endured great hardship. But they 
endured it with characteristic Scottish tenacity and in the 
belief that the future had much in store for them. A few 
years rolled by and they had made homes for their families 
and laid the foundations for a God-fearing and prosperous 
community. To ponder over the hazards and hardships 

25 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

they faced with such optimistic heroism, is but to admire 
and pay them a justly earned tribute. 

The names of these first settlers were: Donald Cam- 
eron, his brothers Samuel and Finlay, Alexander Cameron, 
Robert Clark, Peter Grant, first elder in the settlement, 
James McDonald, Hugh McDonald on the east side of 
the river. James Fraser, Duncan McDonald, John Mc- 
Donald, brother of James, John Chisholm, drowned at 
the Narrows with Finlay Cameron, John McDonald, 2d, 
John Chisholm, Jr. 

John McDonald was born at Glen Urquhart and be- 
longed to the Glencoe McDonalds. At the time of the 
Glencoe Massacre, 1692, one of the McDonalds fled to 
Glen Urquhart and settled there. John McDonald was a 
grandson or great grandson of that man. He was about 
eight years in the Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment, 
and three of his sons fought with him in the Revolutionary 
War on the Loyalists' side. He was married twice. By 
his first wife he had Duncan, Alexander, Mary and 
, Christy. By his second wife, Margaret Grant, he had 
James, Ewen, Ann and Ellen. Ann was married to 
Thomas Fraser, Basin. Ellen was married to James 
Robertson. The well known Deacon Robertson, Church- 
ville, was their son. Duncan, eldest son of John Mc- 
Donald, was married to Catherine Fraser. James, their 
third son, was born about 1759. He was a Corporal in 
the 84th regiment. He married about 1782, Mary Forbes, 
by whom he had Alexander, Edward and other sons. 

He left East River about 1834, and settled in Upper 
Canada where he died in 1857. He was an elder under 
Dr. McGregor and a very prominent man on the East River 
in his day. Alexander McDonald, his fifth son, settled 
near Bridgeville and was the father of Hon. James Mc- 
Donald, Chief Justice of Nova Scotia. 

Edward, second son of James McDonald, had a son 
John A. McDonald, who left the East River and settled 

26 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

in Ontario. John A. was the father of James A. Mac- 
donald, LL.D., editor of the Toronto Globe and one of the 
ablest political writers in Canada. He is a Presbyterian 
minister and still preaches occasionally. Ontario claims 
the honor of being his birthplace, but the East River is 
entitled to some recognition in any reference to his parent- 
age for both his parents were born there. 

James Fraser, Culloden, married Ann Robertson, 
Churchville, and had John, Catherine, Margaret, Alex- 
ander and James. Alexander married Catherine Rankine, 
of Merigomish. The late Rev. James W. Fraser, of Scots- 
burn, was their son. 

Alexander Cameron settled on the first lot above Cullo- 
den. Donald Cameron with his brother Samuel were 
natives of Glen Urquhart. Donald served eight years 
in the army. He was settled on the saddle lot. It is said 
that the price given for it was a saddle. Thomas Fraser, 
who lived in Springville, purchased it from Donald Cam- 
eron and settled on it about 1815. He married Janet 
Fraser, widow of Hector Thompson. He left the lot to 
Simon and Donald Thompson, sons of his wife by her first 
husband. Duncan, son of Donald Cameron, was an elder 
in Dr. McGregor's time. 

John Campbell, son of James and Elizabeth Campbell 
was born at Garabeg, Glen Urquhart, July 24, 1790. He 
entered the army in 1812. He married Janet, daughter 
of Archibald Fraser, in 1812. He came to Pictou in 
October 1818. Peter G. was his eldest son. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Kennedy, a sister of Donald Kennedy, 
Sunny Brae. His son, Donald K., is a minister in Illinois. 
One of his sons is a physician in Illinois. 

Donald, son of Charles Mclntosh, settled on the lot 
above Donald McDonald, Roy. He lived there for a few 
years and then sold to William Ciuin McDonald and 
removed to Fox Brook. William Ciuin was a teacher 
but gave it up for other pursuits. In the course of 

27 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

time he started a store in New Glasgow. He put up a 
frame house on his lot, boarded it, but never shingled it. 
Donald McDonald, Roy, bought a piece of land near 
New Glasgow from Dr. Skinner. He exchanged it with 
William Ciuin for the lot in the Upper Settlement and gave 
it to his son, John McDonald, Roy. John finished the 
frame house which William Ciuin had begun and lived in it. 
It is a question who had the honor of living in the first 
frame house above Springville. It may have been an 
honor, but what of it ? Were not the men who were born 
in log houses as strong, as wise and good as the men born 
in frame houses ? 

David Mclntosh, son of Charles Mclntosh, settled a 
short distance above his brother, Donald Mclntosh. 
David was born in Inverness, Scotland, and married 
Christie Chisholm. James Mclntosh, his son, Island, 
East River, married Catherine Grant. Two of their 
sons David C. and Finlay G., entered the ministry. 
Hugh, another son of David Mclntosh, married Isabel 
Poison and gave that man of weight and wisdom, Rev. 
Charles D. Mclntosh to the ministry. Two other sons 
entered the medical profession. 

Alexander McDonald, Roy, was a native of Glen Urqu- 
hart, came to Pictou in 1803, and settled at Sunny Brae. 
He married Christy Fraser and had four sons and four 
daughters. Squire McDonald of Springville was his 
second son. Alexander, his third son, was well known in 
Sunny Brae for many years. The Rev. Finlay R. Mc- 
Donald, a minister in Scotland, was the youngest son of 
Squire McDonald. 

John Thompson and his son Alexander settled at Sunny 
Brae in 1801. Alexander married Bella Mclntosh by 
whom he had John, Andrew, Alexander, William, James, 
Finlay, Christy, Janet and Mary. John Thompson had 
a brother Donald who settled at Nine Mile River. Rev. 
James Thomson of the West River was his grandson. 

28 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

Angus McPhie, in Glen Urquhart married Christy, 
daughter of John Thompson and had Duncan, Christy, 
John, Ewen, Alexander, Mary and James. He came to 
Pictou in the ship Aurora in 1803. Duncan, his eldest 
son, settled at Springville and was an elder in Rev. Angus 
McGillivray's day. His son, John McPhie, was one of 
the old Pictou magistrates. He died in May 1912 in the 
ninety-sixth year of his age. 

The first settlers in Sunny Brae were: Robert Mcln- 
tosh, Donald Kennedy, James Chisholm, John Grant, 
Duncan McDonald, John Thompson, John McDonald, 
Peter Cruikshank and John McGregor. They came to 
Pictou in 1801 and settled in Sunny Brae in 1802. 

Peter Cruikshank was a native of Strathspey, and came to 
Pictou in 1789. In 1792 he had two hundred acres of land 
and a cow. He was married and had Elizabeth, William, 
John, Alexander, Marjorie and Peter. 

Robert Mclntosh married Jessie, daughter of John 
Thompson, and had John, William, Jessie and others. 
Finlay, his son settled on Blanchard Road. He married 
Catherine Fraser. John Robert Mclntosh, his son, mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of Donald McDonald, black- 
smith. Their son Finlay H., is pastor in Sydney, C. B. 

John McGregor was a man of great strength. When 
they were making the Big Miller's dam, he stood before 
a log that was rolling down the bank to stop it, but the 
log went over him and killed him. The Big Miller's dam 
was built about the year 1807. 

Donald McDonald, Breac, came from Kerrowgare, 
Scotland, in 1802. He was an intelligent man, and 
was an elder under Dr. McGregor. In 1811 he had four 
hundred acres of land, two cows and eight sheep. He had 
eight children. Finlay settled in Caledonia; Donald, his 
eldest son, settled in Sherbrooke, and was a tailor. 

His son, James McDonald, was born in Scotland in 
1801. He was a tailor but gave up the tailoring business 

29 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

for farming. He married Catherine, daughter of Alex- 
ander Fraser, Downie. He was ordained to the Eldership 
by the Rev. D. B. Blair and fully adorned his office. He 
was succeeded on his farm by his son, the late John A. 
McDonald, Kerrowgare. James A., his son, is a minister 
in the United States. 

Donald Ross, was born in Eddrachillis, in Sutherland- 
shire. He came to Nova Scotia in 1816. He lived for 
one year on Irish Mountain, but removed to Iron Ore, and 
settled back of Alexander McDonald's place. He lived 
there twenty-two years. He then purchased the farm of 
James Mclntosh and occupied it. He had eight children. 
Jessie was married to Kenneth McKenzie, elder, Church- 
ville. 

Jane, who was born at Irish Mountain was married to 
James Gumming, elder, of Sunny Brae. William, his 
eldest son married Mary, daughter of William Gumming, 
and had by her, Donald, William, Peter, Hugh and John 
who settled in Ontario. Donald, his eldest son, has lived 
in New Glasgow for many years where he is greatly be- 
loved. He has been an honored elder in St. Andrew's 
Church for nearly half a century. 

Hugh Ross was an elder in the United Church, New 
Glasgow, and died some years ago. William Ross was an 
elder in Sunny Brae Church. He was married to Christy, 
daughter of Robert Grant, Finlay's brother. He had a 
large family, who were all actively identified with the 
church. Two of his sons, William and Robert D., entered 
the ministry. 

John Grant was born in Glen Urquhart and came to 
Pictou in 1801 and settled at Sunny Brae. He married 
Margaret Mclntosh, and hadbyher Peter, William, Robert, 
Catherine, and Finlay. Robert wasthree years old when he 
came to Pictou. He married Mary McDonald, and had 
five sons, John, Alexander, Peter, William and Duncan. 

A son of Duncan Grant, William M., is a minister in 

30 



THE PIONEERS OF PICTOU 

Ontario. William, who settled in Providence, R. I., 
married Jessie McDougall, a sister of Roderick McDougall 
of Westville. One of his sons became a physician, another 
a lawyer, and two daughters are teachers in the Grammar 
schools, Providence. Marjorie, daughter, of Robert 
Grant, married Joseph McKay ; two of their sons William 
R. and Robert G., are clergymen. Catherine, a sister of 
Finlay Grant, married Duncan McPhie, Springville. They 
had John, Christy, Alexander, Jessie, Margaret, Mary, 
Angus and Peter. Their youngest son, Peter McPhie, 
married Isabella Cruikshank. Their two sons, John P. 
and Duncan A., entered the ministry. 

Finlay Grant was born in 1800 and was one year old 
when he came to Pictou. He married in 1827, Ann, 
daughter of Alexander Fraser, Downie, and had Alexander, 
a merchant in New Glasgow and elder in the United 
Church. John, an elder in Sunny Brae church who gave 
two sons Robert J. and William P., to the ministry; Wil- 
liam, who entered the ministry, gave two of his sons to 
the church, Melville and Clarence. The latter died while a 
catechist. Finlay Grant was ordained to the eldership by 
the Rev. John Macrae in 1834. He was a clear-headed, 
well-read and useful man. 

The descendants of John Grant who came to Sunny 
Brae in 1801 were numerous and took a leading part in 
the activities of the Church. Fifteen of them entered the 
Christian ministry and fourteen were regularly ordained 
elders in the church. This is perhaps as many or more 
than was given by any other family in the county. 



31 



CHAPTER II 

THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

PICTOU County is probably the strongest Presby- 
terian community in Canada. Presbyterianism was 
first on the ground, and has continued in possession. 
So far as known, all who came in the "Hope" and "Hec- 
tor" were Presbyterians, with the exception of one man 
on the "Hope" and one family on the "Hector" who were 
Roman Catholics. The South of Scotland settlers were, 
without exception, Presbyterians. 

The first settled minister, Rev. James McGregor, D.D., 
was an ardent Presbyterian, as was also his coadjutor, 
Rev. D. Ross. These two, with Dr. McCulloch who 
came later, for over forty years upheld the blue banner 
of Presbyterianism, and planted the seed out of which 
grew many of the leading churches, not only in the County 
but in the Maritime Provinces. 

The early settlers in Pictou were almost exclusively 
Scottish. They and their descendants have proved 
themselves worthy of their nationality. They believed 
profoundly in the Word of God and in the blessings of 
education. They were ardent lovers of the Sabbath and 
the Sanctuary. The great truths and principles of Presby- 
terianism they brought with them to their new home, 
where they had much to do with the making and mould- 
ing of Pictou's religious life and history. No group of 
Scotsmen could long be content without the ordinances 
of religion ; and hardly had the first ground been cleared 
and the first seeds planted in Pictou before its pioneers 
began to ask for the ministrations of their Church. 

One hundred and fifty years ago, there was not so far 
as known, a single Presbyterian minister in Nova Scotia. 

33 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

One hundred years ago there were but eight or nine, and 
none at all in any of the other Maritime Provinces. 
Indeed, there were then only three other Presbyterian 
ministers in all Canada; Revs. George Henry and Alexan- 
der Spark of Quebec, and Rev. John Bethune of Montreal, 
the latter of whom held the first Presbyterian service in 
that city, on March 12, 1786. West of Montreal there 
were at that time no Presbyterian ministers. Ontario 
was an almost uninhabited wilderness, and the Great 
North West was unknown. 

The first minister who labored in Nova Scotia was 
Rev. James Lyon who was an Ulster Scotsman. He 
arrived here in 1764 or 1765 and remained about seven 
years. He was a graduate of Princeton, N. J., and was 
ordained to the ministry in 1764. He was a member 
of the Philadelphia Land Company which sent the pio- 
neer settlers to Pictou in the "Hope"; and in all proba- 
bility it was arranged that he should be the minister for 
the new settlement. But it is found that for several 
years he ministered to the people of Halifax, Onslow 
and Truro. In 1769, he removed to Pictou with his 
family, remaining only about two years, after which he 
went to Maine. The only memorial of his visit to Pictou 
is that he gave his name to Lyon's Brook. 

A few years after Mr. Lyon's departure, James David- 
son, a schoolmaster, established a Sabbath School at 
Lyon's Brook for the religious instruction of the young. 
Mr. Davidson came from Scotland to Truro with Rev. 
Mr. Cock in 1772. Soon afterwards he removed to 
Pictou with his family; secured a lot at Lyon's Brook, 
and made his home there. On week days he taught the 
children reading, writing and arithmetic; on the Sabbath 
he gathered them together in his house to teach them the 
Shorter Catechism and the Word of God. 

It is said that his was the first Sabbath School in the 
County, and probably in the Province. If this is true, 

34 




PIOXEER MINISTERS OF PICTOU 

1 JOHN MACLEAN 5 ROBERT S. PATTERSON 

2 DAVID ROY, D.D. 6 ANGUS MCGILLIVRAY 

3 ALEXANDER MCGILLIVRAY, D.D. 7 DUNCAN Ross 



9 DONALD A. FRASER 

10 JOHN L. MURDOCH 

11 JOHN STEWART, D.l 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

then to an old-time school master belongs the honor of 
originating the Sabbath School idea, and Mr. Davidson 
was the first in line of a noble band of teachers, to whom, 
the county of Pictou owes much of its fame. This was 
many years before Robert Raikes began his world-wide 
Sabbath School movement. Mr. Davidson returned in 
1776, to Truro, where he ended his days. 

In April, 1818, a Sabbath School was organized in 
Prince St. Church, Pictou. Its promoters were Robert 
Dawson and John Geddie. Rev. Thomas McCulloch 
was pastor when the school started. It began with about 
eighty scholars. Ten years later the school had increased 
to 260. The first superintendents were Robert and James 
Dawson. The first teachers were John Geddie, F. Ross, 
David Fraser and R. S. Patterson. 

In 1823 a Sabbath School Society was formed for the 
purpose of organizing schools in the outlying districts. 
In four years the number had increased to 75, chiefly 
through the agency of this society. The first Sabbath 
School in New Glasgow was organized about 1838, in St. 
Andrew's Church, by Rev. John Stewart who was then 
pastor. He taught the Bible Class, which was held in 
the church during the summer months, and in the winter 
months in the manse. Among the first teachers were 
John McKay, Alexander McKay, Dr. Forrest and the 
wife of Rev. John Stewart. 

From the time of the arrival of the "Hope" and "Hec- 
tor" the colony increased in numbers and influence. A 
steady stream of immigrants continued to pour into the 
county till, in 1786, the total population was about five 
hundred. These were settled principally along the three 
rivers, East, Middle and West with a few families scattered 
around the shore, from Pictou to Merigomish. Rev. 
Mr. Cock of Truro frequently visited the people and 
preached to them. Indeed, many considered him their 
minister, and traveled thirty miles on foot to Truro to 

35 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

observe the Lord's Supper sometimes carrying their 
children there for baptism. But the time had come for 
them to have a minister of their own. 

Accordingly, a committee was appointed, consisting 
of Robert and John Patterson of Pictou, William Smith 
of the West River, Robert Marshall, Middle River, and 
Donald McKay of East River, to secure a minister. They 
agreed to pay eighty pounds for the first and second 
years. The call was sent to Scotland. It came before 
the General Associate Synod of Scotland at its meeting 
on May 3, 1786, when it was accepted by Rev. James 
McGregor who accordingly sailed for Halifax, from Green- 
ock, in the brig Lily, on the fourth day of June, 1786. 

Dr. McGregor was born in Perthshire, Scotland in 1759. 
He arrived in Nova Scotia in July 11, 1786, when he 
was 27 years of age. He had had some experience in 
ministerial work in Scotland. He was a good scholar and 
a sound theologian. His knowledge of Gaelic was ac- 
curate and his mastery of the language complete, as may 
be seen from his "Gaelic Poems and Hymns," which are 
still in demand among Highlanders. 

He landed in Halifax, after a voyage of 37 days, and at 
once proceeded to Pictou, where he arrived on Saturday, 
the twenty-first day of July, 1786. His welcome was 
cordial. His first sermon was preached in Squire Patter- 
son's barn about a mile west of the present town. He 
preached in English in the forenoon from the text, "This 
is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that 
Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners", and 
in Gaelic in the afternoon on "The Son of Man is come to 
seek and to save that which was lost." 

The second Sabbath after his arrival, July 30th, he 
preached at the East River, a little below what was after- 
wards Albion Mines. The third Sabbath's preaching 
took place at the lower end of the Middle River, at what 
was then Alexander Eraser's homestead. It was at this 

36 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

time he first met Robert Marshall, who was afterwards 
his life-long friend and helper. Early in October he visited 
the upper settlement of the East River. His first sermon 
in that section was preached at James McDonald's inter- 
vale, (now Cameron's) under the shade of a large elm 
tree, which forms the frontispiece of this book. The 
tree is still standing and flourishing vigorously. Occa- 
sionally, he preached at Mr. Charles Mclntosh's, 
about six miles farther up the River in a grove of trees, 
and at West Branch at Mr. Donald Chisholm's or at 
James Cameron's. Late in the Autumn, he paid his first 
visit to Merigomish, where for thirty years he continued 
at intervals to give supply. During the summer he 
preached in the open air, then during the winter, in 
private dwellings. 

For nine years, Dr. McGregor was the sole minister 
in Pictou County, preaching, visiting, traveling on 
snowshoes in winter, and in summer literally paddling 
his own canoe. His congregation was widely scattered, 
and his mission field extensive. 

Among the settlers who came to Pictou in 1783, were 
three Erasers, who all settled on the East River. Their 
names were; Thomas, Simon and Alexander Eraser. 
They are noteworthy because they were the first elders 
chosen to that office. Having been previously ordained 
as elders before leaving Scotland, they were elected by 
the people, and these three men, with Dr. McGregor, as 
Moderator, formed the first session in Pictou, Sept. 17, 
1786, thus completing the organization of the congrega- 
tion which at that time comprised the whole county. 

The next year the session was increased by the addi- 
tion of Donald McKay and Peter Grant of the East 
River. Robert Marshall and Kenneth Eraser of the 
Middle River, John McLean and Hugh Eraser of the 
West River and John Patterson of the Harbor. They 
were ordained on May 6, 1787. 

37 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

During the summer, the people built two log churches, 
the first in the county. The one was situated near the 
site of the old Duff Cemetery, a short distance above 
New Glasgow; the other on the Loch Broom side of the 
West River, beside a brook, on land, owned at that time, 
by William MacKenzie, who gave the site. Dr. McGregor 
describes the building of these churches. During the 
month of July 1787, the men were chiefly engaged in 
building the two meeting houses. Instead of having 
contractors, to build them, they agreed to divide the work 
among themselves. One party cut the logs and hauled 
them to the site; another hewed and laid them; another 
provided the shingles; those who had knowledge of 
carpentering made the doors and the windows; the glass 
and nails were bought. Moss was stuffed between the 
logs to keep out the wind and rain. The churches at 
first had no pulpits, and, when they were provided at a 
later date, they were not of mahogany, but of the white 
pine of Pictou. The buildings were some thirty-five or 
forty feet long, by twenty-five to thirty feet wide. The 
only seats in them were logs of wood with the upper side 
hewed. It is unnecessary to state that they were without 
cushions. There was a gallery, or rather, an upper story, 
with a floor seated with logs and slabs to which the 
young went up by ladders. 

Such were the first two churches of Pictou. They had 
no modern improvements. Even the luxury of a fire 
in winter was unknown. There were no carriages and 
no roads at that date Our dear mothers in Israel walked 
to church, or went by boat or horseback, in bonnet and 
shawl and gingham dress. The music was far from pre- 
tentious. The preacher and his sermon would now be 
considered antiquated. But the writer of this volume is 
old fashioned enough to think that no sweeter praise 
and prayers ever ascended to God than these devout 
pioneers offered in glen and glade and primitive building. 

38 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

With all our knowledge and progress, we have not got 
beyond them in essentials. 

In 1803, the old log church near New Glasgow was 
replaced by a frame-building at Irishtown, (now called 
Plymouth). Here Dr. McGregor built a house made 
of brick, the first of its kind in the Eastern part of the 
Province. He employed a man from the old. country 
to make the brick. Here he lived till near the close of 
his life. The fact that Dr. McGregor received no salary 
until he had been over a year at work did not pre- 
vent him from doing his whole duty as a minister. His 
salary was to be eighty pounds for the first two years, 
ninety for the third and fourth and one hundred pounds 
currency per year thereafter, which was a very generous 
allowance for that time, more particularly in a new and 
struggling settlement. The salary at first was raised by 
an assessment on lands and cattle. With certain changes 
this was continued till 1815, when the method of obtain- 
ing the salary was changed to voluntary subscription. 
On the 27th day of July, 1788, the first Sacrament was 
held at Middle River, in the open air. It was dispensed . 
on a beautiful green plot, on the left bank of the river, 
sheltered by a lofty wood. Here one hundred and thirty 
sat down in Nature's great cathedral, for the first time in 
this new land, to own a Saviour's dying love. There the 
sacred Supper was dispensed annually till 1795. At the 
first communion thirty-eight new communicants joined. 
Each year there were a few additions till, in 1793, the num- 
ber had reached two hundred and forty. At the same 
time five hundred persons were under training with a 
view to becoming communicants. 

>-In 1793 a census of the County was taken. In 1769, 

f there had been 18 families and a total population of 120. 

T In 1786, there were 90 families and about 500 people. In 

'\I1793, there were 178 families, a gain of one hundred per 

cent in seven years. 

39 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

For nine years Dr. McGregor labored alone At the 
end of that time two young ministers arrived from Scot- 
land, Revs. Duncan Ross and John Brown. They reached 
Pictou in the summer of 1795, and remained there for a 
little time to rest. Meantime the sacrament of the Supper 
was dispensed at Middle River. Messrs. Ross and Brown 
assisted in preaching and serving the tables. 

The next step was for those three to organize a Presby- 
tery. Accordingly, at the close of the sacrament, on 
Monday, July 7, 1795, Messrs. McGregor, Ross and Brown 
held a meeting in Robert Marshall's barn, and formed 
themselves into "The Associate Presbytery of Nova 
Scotia." On this occasion Dr. McGregor preached on 
Neh. 2:20, "The God of heaven, he will prosper us; 
therefore we his servants will arise and build." The meet- 
ings of Presbytery were occasions of rich enjoyment. 
Business was apparently a secondary matter, at all 
events, for five years, they kept no minutes of their pro- 
ceedings. But their meetings were scenes of hearty 
Christian fellowship and conference about the trials or 
successes of their work; intelligence from friends in the 
dear homeland, the new movement in Missions, the 
meaning of some particular text, or sometimes an hour 
of harmless mirth and merriment, these engaged their 
attention and made their meetings times of fraternal en- 
joyment. 

Dr. McGregor and Mr. Ross were associate ministers 
for the county till July 14, 1801, when a division was 
made. Thereafter West and Middle Rivers formed one 
congregation, with Mr. Ross as minister. East River, 
another, with Dr. McGregor in charge; and the Harbor 
a third, to be supplied by these two till another minister 
could be secured. 

In Nov. 1803, Rev. Dr. Thos. McCulloch, with his 
wife and three children, arrived at Pictou from Scotland. 
His coming was a great event in the ecclesiastical and 

40 




HON. JAMES D. McGREGOR 
LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR OF THE PROVINCE 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

educational history of the County, as well as in that of 
the Province. He had been assigned to Prince Edward 
Island, but owing to the lateness of the season, he was 
unable to secure passage. He was engaged to supply the 
Harbor congregation till spring. Before winter was over, 
the people gave him a call, and he was inducted as their 
minister, June 6, 1804. The town of Pictou, at this 
time, consisted of something over a dozen houses, a few 
barns, a blacksmith shop and the Court House. There 
was no church, and the people met in private dwellings 
and other places. Until that time the people of the 
Harbor had worshipped in the log church at Loch Broom, 
but they now set about the erection of a church of their 
own, and a frame building was built on the lot at present 
occupied by Prince St. Church. That building served the 
congregation till 1848, when the existing church was 
erected. Dr. McCulloch resigned in 1824 to give his whole 
time to educational work. He was succeeded by Rev. 
John McKinlay who continued in charge till his death, 
1850. He in turn was succeeded by Rev. James Bayne, 
D.D. Mr. McKinlay was a native of Scotland, and came 
to this country in 1817. For several years he was a 
teacher in Pictou Academy before he became pastor of 
the Harbor church. 

River John was organized into a congregation in 1808, 
with Rev. John Mitchell as its first settled minister. 
There were about fifty families at this time in the com- 
munity. Mr. Mitchell, who came from England, was in 
early life a rope-maker, but being anxious to preach the 
Gospel, he prepared himself for the work when about 
thirty years of age. 

He made several missionary tours in Canada before 
settling in River John. Though originally a Congrega- 
tionalist, he united with the Presbytery of Pictou. His 
labors extended over a district now 'served by five or six 
ministers. Here he labored with great diligence and 

41 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

faithfulness, giving special attention to the training of 
the young and the superintendence of prayer meetings. 
He died in 1841, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. He 
is described as a man of great cheerfulness. 

Rev. William Patrick was the first minister at Meri- 
gomish, and the fifth in the county. He came to Meri- 
gomish in 1815 and was inducted pastor. In early life he 
was brought up in the Reformed Presbyterian Church, 
but connected himself with the Anti-Burgher Church. 
Mr. Patrick labored with great fidelity, preaching on 
week days as well as Sabbaths, and faithfully attending 
to family visitation, prayer services and catechising. On 
May 7, 1844, the Rev. A. P. Miller was ordained as his 
colleague. On the 25th of Nov., 1844, he died, greatly 
beloved by his people, aged 73 years. 

An event of much importance to the Presbyterian 
Church took place on the third of May, 1817, when a 
union between the Burgher and Anti-Burgher Churches 
was consummated. The united body assumed the name 
of The Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia, and a 
Synod was formed and divided into three Presbyteries. 
Rev. James McGregor was chosen as first Moderator. 
Of the nineteen ministers of the Synod of Nova Scotia, 
fourteen had been connected with the Anti-Burgher 
Church, three with the Church of Scotland and two were 
Congregationalists. This union was productive of much 
good. The hearts of ministers and people were greatly 
encouraged. Now they were one body, ready to estab- 
lish and build up the Kingdom. 

Hitherto the Church had been dependent upon Scotland 
for its ministers ; but it had long been evident that they 
must look elsewhere for their supply. Accordingly, in 
1820, the Synod established a Theological Hall in Pictou 
for the training and education of a native ministry. 

Pictou claims the honor of being the birthplace of the 
first Presbyterian Theological School in Canada. The 

42 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

moving spirit in the enterprise was the Rev. Thomas 
McCulloch, D. D., an enthusiastic educationist and a 
man of wonderful foresight. As early as 1805, two years 
after his arrival from Scotland, we find him planning a 
school for the education of young men which resulted in 
1816 in the establishment of Pictou Academy, where 
several young men who had the ministry in view were 
prepared for entering upon a theological course. 

In the autumn of 1820 the Divinity Hall was opened 
with Dr. McCulloch as the first Professor of Theology. 
The classes were taught in one of the rooms at Pictou 
Academy. Twelve students entered upon the study of 
theology the first term. The young men supported 
themselves by teaching and met the professor at inter- 
vals of a fortnight to receive instruction in their theo- 
logical studies. In 1824, the first fruits of the church's 
educational efforts were realized in the licensing, ordain- 
ing and settlement of six of the students. These were 
Messrs. R. S. Patterson, John L. Murdoch, John McLean, 
Angus McGillivray, Hugh Ross and Hugh Dunbar. The 
first four were licensed on June 8, 1824 by the Presby- 
tery of Pictou. Three of these, Messrs. Patterson, 
Murdoch and McLean before accepting calls, proceeded 
to Scotland, where after passing a creditable examination 
they received the degree of Master of Arts from the 
University of Glasgow. 

One of the first of the graduates to be settled was Angus 
McGillivray. He became the worthy successor of Dr. 
McGregor in the Upper Settlement of the East River. 
He was inducted Sept. 1, 1824. For the long period of 
40 years he continued to labor, amidst great discourage- 
ments, but with great fidelity. In 1864 he tendered his 
resignation and on the 20th of July, 1869 he died in the 
77th year of his age and the 45th of his ministry. His 
congregation included both the East and West Branch, a 
district now supporting five Presbyterian ministers. The 

43 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

first meeting house on the East River was at Grant's 
Lake, on the farm now occupied by Joseph H. Grant. It 
was a log house, built in 1790, and served the East and 
West Branches. 

Having visited London and Edinburgh, Messrs. McLean, 
Murdoch and Patterson returned to Nova Scotia reach- 
ing Pictou after a passage of forty five days. They were 
soon settled in pastoral charges. Mr. McLean was or- 
dained in 1825 and in 1826 accepted a call to Richibucto, 
N. B. In a short time he was compelled to resign his charge 
on account of ill health. For two years he conducted a 
private academy in Halifax with success. He died in 1837, 
in the 37th year of age. During his brief ministry he was 
distinguished as an able preacher, and a zealous missionary ; 
he took a deep interest in Sunday school work and was one 
of the first advocates of the cause of temperance. 

Mr. Murdoch was settled at Windsor and died there 
in 1873, in the 74th year of his age. His congregation 
extended all over western Hants and for nearly fifty 
years he preached there with ability and success. He 
was greatly beloved by his people and was the spiritual 
father of many children. He was a valuable member of 
the courts of the church. One of the ecclesiastical meas- 
ures which he brought before the Synod in 1840 was, that 
this Synod do form itself into a society to be called "The 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in the Lower 
Provinces." Dr. Keir and Mr. Murdoch drafted the rules 
which were adopted. The successor of that domestic 
Missionary Society is the Board of Home Missions of the 
church of today of which Mr. Murdoch was a member 
as long as he lived. 

Bedeque, in Prince Edward Island was the scene of Mr. 
Patterson's ministry. At the time of his settlement in 
1825 it is said there was not a wagon in the parish or a 
mile of road in which to run one. The country was al- 
most an unbroken forest. The congregation at first was 

44 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

small and during the greater part of his ministry he did 
not receive more than $300 per year and only half in 
money. He labored without interruption till a few 
years before his death in 1882, having been 56 years and 
a half in the ministry. Mr. Patterson was a distinguished 
student and a true friend of popular education. His 
zeal for missions is well known and second only in fervor 
to Dr. Geddie's. 

In 1827 Mr. Ross accepted a call to Tatamagouche and 
New Annan. Here he continued until 1840 when he 
accepted a charge in Prince Edward Island, where he 
died suddenly in 1858. 

Mr. Dunbar was an English and Gaelic preacher. He 
settled at Cavendish, Prince Edward Island in 1827. 
Resigning in 1840 he engaged in teaching but also preached 
regularly where he resided. He died in 1857. These six 
men have this prominence and honor in common that 
they were the pioneer native ministers of British North 
America, at all events of the Presbyterian Church. 

From this time forward the Church made rapid growth 
and progress. Congregations were formed, and suitable 
pastors settled over them. Home missions were established 
to aid the weaker churches. It was a time of strengthen- 
ing and enlargement. 

On April 16, 1813, over a hundred years ago, a Bible 
Society was organized at Durham, N. S., the first in the 
County and the second in the Province, that in Truro 
being first. The first contribution received for the Bible 
Society, London, from any place outside of England, 
came from Pictou County. Money was a rare commodity 
in those days, but, in 1807, two hundred and fifty-six 
dollars, and, in 1808, three hundred and twenty dollars 
were collected in the county and sent to the London 
Society. In 1825, the Society was reorganized, with head- 
quarters in Pictou. In 1840 the New Glasgow district 
was organized into a branch of its own. 

45 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

^ For forty-four years Dr. McGregor labored in the 
County. He died on the third day of March, 1830. He 
had lived to see the congregation of which he was origi- 
nally the sole Pastor grow and develop into six congrega- 
tions with settled pastors, a Presbytery and a Synod 
organized to conduct the business of the church, an 
Academy and Seminary founded to educate and train 
ministers, and the cause of Presbyterianism firmly estab- 
lished in the Maritime Provinces. 

Dr. McGregor was twice married, first to Ann, daughter 
of Roderick McKay, by whom he had James, Christina 
(Mrs. Abram Patterson, Pictou), Roderick, Jessie (Mrs. 
Charles Fraser, Green Hill), Sarah (Mrs. George McKenzie, 
New Glasgow), and Robert. 

In 1812 he married Mrs. Gordon, widow of Rev. Peter 
Gordon, by whom he had Mary (Mrs. (Rev.) John 
Cameron, Nine Mile River), Annabel (Mrs. (Rev.) John 
Campbell), Sherbrooke, and Peter Gordon. 

His successor in the New Glasgow congregation was 
Rev. David Roy, who was inducted, April 13, 1831. 

Four years after Dr. McGregor's death, Mr. Ross 
died, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. For thirty nine 
years he wrought with great faithfulness and diligence. 
Besides pulpit and pastoral duties, he gave considerable 
time to public affairs. He took a deep interest in educa- 
tion, being a trustee of Pictou Academy from its beginning, 
till his death. He was a pioneer in the organization of 
temperance work. The idea of a total abstinence Society 
originated at the West River, and the honor of forming 
the first Society on this basis in Nova Scotia, and the 
second in Canada, belongs to its founders. It was or- 
ganized in January 1828, and Rev. Duncan Ross, George 
McDonald and Donald McLeod were the prime movers. 

Mr. Ross' last public act was assisting at a Communion 
service in Pictou, town, and taking a leading part in the 
ordination of Alexander McKenzie, a young student 

46 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

from the Seminary. He married Miss Elizabeth Creelman 
of Stewiacke, and had a family of fifteen children. Two 
of the sons were Rev. James Ross, D.D., afterwards 
Principal of Dalhousie College, who succeeded him, and 
Rev. E. Ross of Truro. A daughter who was married 
to Mr. Miller, Rogers Hill, gave three sons to the ministry, 
and another married to Mr. Crockett, gave two sons. 

We now come to the story of the Kirk in the County 
of Pictou. For many years, a large number of the immi- 
grants, chiefly from the Highlands of Scotland, who had 
settled in Pictou, belonged to the Church of Scotland or 
the Kirk. They naturally had great affection for the 
church of their fathers, but continued to attend the Anti- 
Burgher Church, which was the only Presbyterian Church 
within their reach. From time to time, many of them 
were appointed elders and office bearers in Dr. McGregor's 
and Mr. Ross' congregations. A spirit of harmony and co- 
operation prevailed. But, alas! a root of bitterness sprung 
up. Upon this unfortunate story it would be vain to dwell. 

At that time Rev. Donald Allan Fraser came from Scot- 
land and landed at Pictou in 1817. Sometime after- 
wards a large number of the Kirk people withdrew from 
the connection altogether, and formed themselves into 
the Church of Scotland in Nova Scotia with Rev. Mr. 
Fraser as their leader. Mr. Fraser was a man eminently 
qualified to gain the hearts and affections of the High- 
landers young and handsome, an accomplished scholar 
and a powerful Gaelic preacher. The first congregation 
organized was at McLennan's Brook. There were about 
forty families settled there at that time, all Highlanders. 
They extended to him a call which he accepted. 

They erected a frame church capable of seating about 
five hundred persons. This was the first church in the 
County erected in connection with the Church of Scot- 
land. Beside it, they built a log house for himself and 
his wife. 

47 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Next year a church was built at Fraser's mountain, 
about six miles from McLennan's Brook and two miles 
from New Glasgow. There were some twenty-five 
families connected with it, and it became in course of 
time, the nucleus from which St. Andrew's Church, New 
Glasgow was formed. Here Mr. Fraser continued to labor 
with great acceptance and success until 1837, when, to 
the regret of his congregation, he removed to Lunenburg. 
Thence he went to St. Johns, Newfoundland, and founded 
St. Andrew's Church. He died, Feb. 7, 1845, greatly 
honored as a preacher and as a man. He was the first 
Presbyterian minister settled in Newfoundland. His 
son, late Hon. J. O. Fraser, St. Johns, Nfd., spent his early 
manhood at McLennan's Brook. 

The next Kirk congregation organized was St. Andrew's 
Church in the town of Pictou. It first met for worship, 
in the old Court House, in 1822. In 1823, a wooden 
building was erected. Their first minister was Rev. K. J. 
McKenzie, a native of Stornoway, Scotland, who came 
to Pictou in 1824. He was a man of fine ability and a 
good preacher in Gaelic and English. His labors were 
chiefly confined to the Town where he took a prominent 
part in the educational and political questions of the day. 
He died in 1838, in the 39th year of his age. He was 
succeeded by Rev. Mr. Williamson. In 1849, Rev. 
Andrew Herdman became pastor and ministered for thirty 
years. In 1866, a brick and stone building was erected. 
It was burnt in 1893, but rebuilt shortly afterwards. 

The next organization after Pictou town was West 
Branch and East River formed into one congregation. 
The two districts were nearly equally divided in the num- 
ber of families, between the Kirk and the Anti-Burghers. 
For many years Dr. McGregor supplied the one section, 
and Mr. Fraser the other. 

Rev. Angus McGillivray succeeded Dr. McGregor in 
1824. The Kirk people were without a settled minister 

48 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

until 1832 when Rev. John Macrae came from Inver- 
ness, Scotland to be their pastor. Both parties now had 
regular services, but there was only one church in each 
district occupied by Kirk and Anti-Burghers on alternate 
Sabbaths. In 1815 framed buildings were erected at St. 
Paul's, East River, on the hill above the present church, 
and at the West Branch, on a hill near Cameron's Brook, 
not far from St. Columba's Church. Mr. Macrae entered 
upon his work with great zeal and continued to labor 
most acceptably to the people for 16 years, when he re- 
turned to Scotland. 

In the Western part of the County, a congregation was 
organized at Gairloch and Saltsprings. These two dis- 
tricts contained about four hundred families, nearly all 
from the Highlands of Scotland. There first minister 
was Rev. Hugh McLeod who settled there in 1822. He 
was succeeded by Rev. Donald Mclntosh who remained 
until the disruption. 

Rogers Hill, now Scotsburn, was formed into a congre- 
gation about the same time as Gairloch and Saltsprings. 
The community was settled by Highlanders from Suther- 
landshire, who nearly all belonged to the Kirk. The 
first church (St John's) was built in 1823, and is the oldest 
church building in the County. Rev. Roderick Macaulay 
was the first minister. In a few years- he went to Prince 
Edward Island, where he entered into politics and be- 
came speaker of House of Assembly. The next minister 
was the Rev. Donald McConnichie. He was a powerful 
Gaelic preacher, and the Highlanders considered him 
very eloquent in the first and best of all tongues. He left 
for Scotland in 1844. 

In 1827 Barney's River was organized into a congrega- 
tion, with Rev. Donald McKichan as its first minister. 
He was a man of some ability and a faithful pastor. 
After a few years he removed to Cape Breton. At a later 
date he returned to his first charge, and remained there 

49 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

till 1844. The people of Barney's River were nearly all 
Kirk men. For ten years the people were dependent on 
Home Mission supply part of which was given by Rev. 
Dr. McGillivray of McLennan's Mountain. The next 
pastor of the Kirk congregation was Rev. James Mair, in 
1857. 

The Kirk grew and prospered. The grain of mustard 
seed had grown into a stately tree. During the period 
of twenty-six years, the Kirk had become strong and in- 
fluential. Then, suddenly, her progress was arrested by 
an unfortunate division. 

During all those years, a memorable conflict had been 
going on in the Kirk, in the Old Land, which resulted in 
the disruption of 1843 and the formation of the Free 
Church of Scotland, led by Rev. Dr. Chalmers. 

The ecclesiastical disturbance took a year to cross the sea, 
but it arrived in due time, and the Free Church in Nova 
Scotia was formed. It was a time of excitement and confu- 
sion. Old-time ties were severed; venerable associations 
were broken up. There were painful misgivings and divi- 
sions and hard feelings were engendered. But it is not 
necessary to dwell on this unhappy story. It is a thing 
of the past; there let it rest. That year, seven of the Kirk 
ministers in Pictou returned to Scotland to fill pulpits 
made vacant by Free Church ministers. A majority of 
the people remained in the Kirk but they were, for 
most part, as sheep without a shepherd. 

Rev. John Stewart, New Glasgow, was of the first to 
join the Free Church movement. He became pastor 
of St. Andrew's Church immediately after Mr. Fraser's 
resignation, in 1837. In 1819 a frame church was built at 
Fraser's Mountain. It was originally a part of McLennan's 
Mountain congregation, but was separated in 1830, when 
the church was moved down to New Glasgow and placed on 
a site near the present St. Andrew's Church. This was 
the first church building in New Glasgow. 

50 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

When Mr. Stewart left the Kirk, about one hundred 
and forty-five families, and all the elders, save one, 
went with him, and they formed Knox Church, of which 
he became pastor. Mr. Stewart was born in Scotland, 
in 1800, and came to Nova Scotia in 1833. He was a man 
of fine natural gifts, enriched by a superior education. 
He spent himself most lavishly in the best interests of the 
Church and education. He rendered valuable service 
in establishing the Free Church College in Halifax 
and was highly successful in raising funds for it, and in 
encouraging young men to enter the ministry. He died, 
May 4, 1880, having completed his four score years in 
April. 

In 1844, a delegation from the Free Church in the Old 
Country visited the Maritime Provinces. At that time, 
about one third of the people of the Kirk at Scotsburn 
joined the Free Church. They worshipped in St. John's 
Church until 1862, when Bethel Church was built. Rev. 
Alexander Sutherland became their pastor. He was a 
stirring and energetic preacher. In 1859 he became a 
minister of the Scotsburn and Saltsprings Churches, 
and in both charges gave full and fruitful proof of his 
ministry. He died in Nebraska, in 1897, in the 80th year 
of his age. 

Knox Church, Pictou, was organized in Jan. 1846, by a 
handful of mechanics and farmers whose sympathies 
were with the Free Church of Scotland. The church build- 
ing was erected in 1848. The first minister inducted was 
Rev. Murdoch Sutherland. He was called, because of 
his burning zeal and piety, "the Robert Murray McCheyne 
of Nova Scotia." On account of ill health he resigned his 
charge in 1857, and returned to Scotland where he died. 
The next pastor was Rev. Alexander Ross who was 
inducted in 1850, and served the people for nineteen years. 

The people of Blue Mountain and Garden of Eden 
with Barney's River joined the movement in 1848, and 

51 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

had for their leader the Rev. D. B. Blair, a rare and re- 
markable man who was, in his day, the best Gaelic 
scholar in America. In 1852, Mr. Blair and his people 
set about erecting a church which was formally opened for 
service, before a board had been nailed on its walls, 
because the congregation had no other place in which to 
worship. In three years it was completed, without 
debt. For forty years Mr. Blair served this congrega- 
tion and other sections adjoining with great ability and 
devotion. 

For ten years the Kirk in Pictou County struggled on 
without pastors. Rev. Alexander McGillivray, D.D., 
the only Kirk minister who did not return to Scotland 
after the disruption, wrought manfully and faithfully to 
repair the breach and to build up the church on the old 
foundations. 

Dr. McGillivray came to Nova Scotia, from Inver- 
ness, Scotland, in 1833. For five years he labored at 
Barney's River and Merigomish. He succeeded Mr. 
Fraser, in 1838, and continued there to discharge the 
duties of a minister with a devotion and earnestness 
rarely equaled, until his death, in 1862. He spread his 
labors over hundreds of miles of territory, to strengthen 
and encourage the pastorless churches. It was said of 
him, that he often tired out his horses, but the indefatigable 
Dr. McGillivray never tired. 

In 1848, the Synod opened a seminary at the West 
River of Pictou. Professor Ross who was pastor at the 
West River, had charge of the literary and classical depart- 
ments and Professors Keir and Smith the Divinity Hall. 
The classes met in the Temperance Hall in an ill venti- 
lated room above the little country schoolhouse not 
more pretentious than the log cabin that gave birth to the 
renowned Princeton Seminary. Each of the students 
acted stoker in turn, and not only kindled the fire, but 
also swept the floor. Sometimes the little upper room 

52 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

looked tidy and sometimes it did not. The old Tem- 
perance Inn where the students boarded is still standing. 

In 1853 five men graduated, James McGregor McKay, 
James Thomson, Henry Crawford, John M. Macleod and 
James Maclean. They were the first graduates who 
received all their collegiate education at the West River. 
They all settled in country congregations, were successful 
ministers, and all lived to participate in their ministerial 
Jubilee celebration. Revs. Mr. McKay and Mr. Thomson 
died at the ripe old age of ninety three years. Mr. Craw- 
ford died after he passed four score years, and Mr. Macleod 
lived hale and hearty until he was eighty seven. Mr. 
Maclean, died in 1914, in his eighty eighth year and the 
sixtieth year of his ministry. 

The West River Seminary gave a great impetus to the 
life and work of the Presbyterian church both at home 
and abroad. In 1858 the Seminary and Theological Hall 
with its professors and students were transferred to Truro, 
Nova Scotia. The Synod of the Free Church of Nova 
Scotia, realizing their need of a native ministry, also 
opened a college in Halifax in 1848. It continued over 
a period of nearly thirty years. In 1860 the Theological 
department of the College at Truro was removed to 
Halifax, and united with the Free Church College. 

In 1878, the Synod purchased the property at Pine 
Hill and the Theological Hall was transferred there where 
it has since remained. As in the olden times the Ark of the 
Covenant moved from place to place till David, in the days 
of Israel's national unity and prosperity, found a perma- 
nent resting place for it on Mount Zion, "beautiful for 
situation," so the Divinity Hall moved from place to 
place till the church in her unity and prosperity provided 
a beautiful and, we trust, a permanent home for it in Pine 
Hill. The present Principal and Professor of Theology is 
Rev. Clarence Mackinnon, D. D., a native of Pictou 
County. 

53 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

The Presbyterian College, Halifax, is the child of the 
several branches of the Presbyterian Church of the 
Maritime Provinces, once separated but now happily 
united. It had its origin in the humble theological school 
in Pictou nearly a century ago, and since its beginning, 
has sent out over four hundred ministers, who have gone 
to almost every part of the land. The good old fathers of 
the church who founded and maintained this school of 
learning have left us a splendid educational heritage, and 
we owe them the debt of a grateful remembrance. 

The other denominations have played an important 
part in religious history of the County. 
i-S Among the early settlers of the Eastern part of the 
County, who came in the years 1791 and 1802 were a 
number of Roman Catholics who settled in Merigomish 
and along the Gulf Shore. The first resident priest was 
the Rev. James McDonald, who came as early as 1793. 
He was succeeded, about 1800, by the Rev. Alexander 
McDonald, who remained with the people till his death, 
in 1816. He died in Halifax, and his remains were carried 
by his people through the woods all the way to Arisaig 
where^he had had his home. 

The'ifirst native priest was Rev. Donald McKinnon. 
He died when quite a young man. The first Roman 
Catholic church in the county was built at Merigomish, in 
1810. In 1834 the first church at Bailey's Brook was built; 
and, in 1869, that settlement was formed into a separate par- 
ish with the Rev. D. M. McGregor, D.D., as its first priest. 

Stella Maris, in Pictou town, was begun in 1823. The 
first priest located there was Rev. Mr. Boland who was 
settled in 1828. The present church, which stands on one 
of the most prominent sites in Pictou, was erected in 1865. 
Father McDonald, afterwards Bishop of Newfoundland, 
was then in charge. From 1881 to 1892 Rev. Roderick 
McDonald was pastor. He was succeeded by Rev. J. J. 
Chisholm. 

54 






1 JAMES MACLEAN, D.D. 

2 ISAAC MURRAY, D.D. 

3 ALEXANDER FALCONER, D.D. 



GROUP OF DECEASED MINISTERS 
4 JOHN CAMERON 7 



5 GEORGE PATTERSON, LL.D. 

6 E. D. MILLER, D.D. 



WILLIAM MCCULLOCH, D.D. 
P. G. MCGREGOR, D.D. 
J. MCGREGOR McKAY 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

The Parishes and Priests of the Roman Catholic 
Church in the county at present are: Rev. W. B. Mac- 
donald, Lourdes, who has been stationed there for 38 years, 
Rev. J. D. McLeod, New Glasgow, Rev. J. J.McKinnon, 
Bailey's Brook, Rev. J. A. Butts, Westville, Rev. J. 
McLennan, Thorburn and Merigomish, Rev. Ronald 
Macdonald, Pictou. 

The Church of England was first established within the 
county in the town of Pictou. The leading spirits in the 
first organization were Dr. Johnsone and Robert Hatton, 
Sr. Through the influence of the latter, a lot was secured, 
and he himself put up the frame in the year 1826. Three 
years later the church was completed, Mr. Hatton's son, 
Henry, being foremost in the work. The church was con- 
secrated in 1829 by Bishop Inglis. The first rector of 
the parish was the Rev. Chas. Elliott, B. A., who was 
settled there, the 3d of April, 1832. He was appointed 
rector of the parish in 1834. 

The whole country was then his parish, and he preached 
once a month at Albion Mines, River John and other 
places. He was a man greatly beloved by his own church 
and had the respect of the whole community. He la- 
bored in the County for thirty-three years. He was suc- 
ceeded by Revs. Messrs. Prior, Wood and Geniver. Rev. 
D. D. Moore was Rector until 1873, when he resigned, 
and the Rev. T. C. Desbarres was elected. He was fol- 
lowed in the year 1874, by the Rev. James P. Sheraton, 
now Principal of Wycliffe College. Rev. Wm. Cruden 
was the next Rector, and in 1877 the Rev. John Edge- 
combe was appointed. 

The old Church having been enlarged at different times 
and now getting pretty old, it was decided to erect a new 
one. The corner-stone was laid on the 22d of May, 1879, 
and the fine large church in which the congregation now 
worship, was finally completed and the first service held 
on the 15th day of June, 1881. Rev. H. A. Harley suc- 

55 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

ceeded Rev. Mr. Edgecombe in 1888. In the year 1852, 
the southern part of the parish, including Albion Mines, 
New Glasgow and adjoining Country, was constituted 
a separate parish. In 1876, the settlement of River John 
was separated from Pictou, and likewise constituted a 
parish. 

Christ Church, Albion Mines, was built in 1851. The 
earlier pastors were Revs. St. Blois, Wilkins, Bowman 
and Moore. The first curate at River John was Rev. M. 
Kaulbach. He was appointed in 1865. The Rectors and 
parishes at present are: Rev. A. E. Andrews, St. James 
Church, Pictou, Rev. F. Robertson, M. A., St. George's 
Church, New Glasgow, Rev. R. B. Patterson, M. A., 
Christ Church, Stellarton, Rev. J. F. Tupper, St. Bee's 
Church, Westville, Rev. A. W. L. Smith, M. A., St. John's 
Church, River John, and Rev. W. W. Clarkson, Trenton. 

The first Baptist Society in the County was organized 
by James Murray, who came to Pictou in 1811, and after- 
ward removed to River John in June 18, 1815, where he 
baptized two persons and dispensed the communion. 
The society was formed on the principles of the Scotch 
Baptists or Disciples. The first society of the regular 
Baptists was formed in the year 1838 at Merigomish. A 
congregation was organized at River John in 1844. 

In 1874 a church was built at Barney's River and a 
small congregation worshipped there. The First Baptist 
Church, New Glasgow, is now the largest in the County. 
It was formed in 1875. The present pastor, is Rev. J. 
Clement Wilson. His predecessor was Rev. W. M. 
Smallman. 

The history of Methodism in Pictou County virtually 
begins with the opening up of the coal mines, although 
River John had long previously been a regular appointment 
of the Wallace Circuit. From 1825 to 1848 irregular visits 
were paid to Albion Mines (now Stellarton) by the 
Methodist ministers stationed at Wallace, Truro or 

56 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

River John. In 1845, in response to a request from the 
General Mining Association, among whose employees 
were a number of married Englishmen, Richard Weddal 
was sent to Albion Mines. There is no further record of 
appointments to this place until it was made a circuit in 
1861, when Rev. J. Cassidy was stationed there. 

The Society in River John was organized by Rev. Mr. 
Snowball, in 1822. They built their first church in 1824. 
Since that time, River John has been one of the regular 
Methodist circuits. 

Pictou town did not become a circuit until 1868, al- 
though one or two unsuccessful attempts had been pre- 
viously made to place a minister there. This circuit be- 
came a mission in 1905. 

New Glasgow was, until 1888, a part of the Stellarton 
Mission. It is to a young woman from River John that 
New Glasgow Methodism owes its existence today. 
Miss Ellen Harbourne from that circuit was married to 
a Mr. Walker and came to live in New Glasgow. She 
was a loyal Methodist, and united with the Church at 
Stellarton. At her request the minister from Stellarton 
frequently preached in a hall at New Glasgow. Rev. 
Douglas Chapman (1864-67) was probably the first to 
conduct these services. No serious attempt was made 
to establish a Methodist Church in New Glasgow until 
the time of Rev. Isaac Thurlow (1880-83). During his 
pastorate, the old Free Church building and lot were 
purchased. It was remodelled and put into its present 
condition at a cost of nearly $3,000. From a struggling 
mission, raising only $410 for its minister as late as 1899, 
New Glasgow became independent under Rev. E. E. Eng- 
land, in 1901, and is now one of the most desirable cir- 
cuits of the Conference. 

Trenton has been attached to New Glasgow since the 
time of Rev. W. I. Croft (1893-96). Services were first 
held in the Orange Hall. Later, the little Methodist Church 

57 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

at Piedmont was donated to the Trenton Methodists. 
The Methodist Circuits with their present ministers 
are: Pictou, Rev. Robert Williams, Stellarton, Rev. John 
Phalen, River John, H. D. Townsend, Trenton, Rev. 
Thomas Hodgson, New Glasgow, Rev. F. E. Barrett. 

The census of 1911 gives the number of Presbyterians 
in the County 24,000, Roman Catholics 5600, Anglicans 
2600, Methodists 2500, Baptists 1100. The population 
of County is 36,000. Out of this number 26,000 are Scotch, 
5200 English, 2400 Irish, 1000 French, 376 Swiss, 240 
German, 300 Negro, 172 Indian. 

The beginnings of the different branches of the Presby- 
terian Church in the County of Pictou have now been 
briefly traced; the Anti-Burgher Church from 1786; the 
Kirk from 1817, the Free Church, from 1844, and likewise, 
those of the other denominations. The result of the 
Presbyterian disruption, of 1844 was a renewed activity 
in that denomination. There was a spirit of rivalry be- 
tween the churches. If the different branches of the Church 
did not provoke one another to love, they certainly did 
provoke to good works. 

The Home Mission Board which was founded in 1840, 
prosecuted its work as never before. Foreign Missionary 
enterprise was launched in 1845, and Dr. Geddie the 
first Missionary of the Church, was sent to the South 
seas in 1846. That event started a new era of zeal and 
liberality in the Church, never manifested before. It also 
brought the Churches into closer touch with one another. 
In 1848 the Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia and the 
Free Church established "schools of the prophets," one 
at West River, another at Halifax. 

From these two schools, came a splendid band of minis- 
ters and missionaries who went far and wide, founding 
and building up churches. The Kirk still kept on looking 
across the sea for a supply of ministers, and they came. 
In 1853, two young men came from Scotland Rev. 

58 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

Alex. Maclean, D. D., a native of the County but educated 
in the old country, and Rev. Allan Pollock, D. D., sent 
over by the Colonial Committee to Nova Scotia, as a 
minister of the Church of Scotland. Dr. Pollock received 
and accepted a call to St. Andrew's Church, New Glasgow; 
and continued to be its pastor till 1875, when he was 
appointed Professor of Church history in the Presby- 
terian College, Halifax, and later Principal. In 1904, 
he resigned, and now resides in Halifax, rich in the love 
and esteem of the whole Canadian Church. 

Mr. Maclean was settled over the Kirk Congregation 
at Saltsprings, and held pastorates at Belfast, P. E. I. 
and Hopewell, N. S. In all these charges he gave full proof 
of his ministry. In 1911, his Diamond Jubilee was cele- 
brated by the Presbytery of Pictou. He now resides at 
Eureka, N. S., in his ninety-fourth year, enjoying an 
honorable old age. Four young men, all natives of the 
County; William McMillan, Simon McGregor, George M. 
Grant and John Cameron, were educated in Glasgow and 
returned to Nova Scotia and were settled in important 
charges. 

Gradually the ecclesiastical sky was clearing after the 
storm. It was found that men were forgetting their old 
differences and settling down to a new order of things. 
There were three branches of the Presbyterian Church in 
the Province, where two was* one too many. October 4, 
1860 is a memorable day in the history of the Presby- 
terian Church. On that day the union of the Presby- 
terian Church of Nova Scotia, and of the Free Church took 
place under the title of "The Presbyterian Church of the 
Lower Provinces." 

The Synod of the Presbyterian Church of N. S. was 
represented by Revs. John L. Murdoch and P. G. 
McGregor, Professors Smith and Ross. The Synod of 
the Free Church, by Rev. Mr. Forbes, Professor King and 
Rev. Dr. Forrester. The Union meeting was held in 

59 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Pictou. A tent was erected on Patterson's hill, near the 
town. Over this tent floated a bright, blue banner with the 
legend in white lilies, "For Christ's Crown and Covenant." 
The spot selected was where Dr. McGregor preached 
his first sermon in the County. Here the two parties were 
declared one, amid great rejoicings. 

There followed years of growth and prosperity in all 
branches of the Church. Congregations multiplied. The 
supply of ministers increased. Educational institutions 
were strengthened. Missionary enterprise was promoted, 
both at home and abroad. "Then had the churches rest 
and were edified." This prosperity was shared in very 
largely by the Kirk brethren as well. 

With the coming of young men into the ministry a 
spirit of Union was manifest, and grew rapidly. Churches 
were tired of controversy and separation; and united 
co-operatively in educational and missionary, as well as in 
devotional services. A Union of co-operation was soon 
followed by a Union of Organization. In 1875, all branches 
of the Church were merged in the Presbyterian Church in 
Canada. 



60 



CHAPTER III 

PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 
THE MINISTERS AND CHURCHES IN THE TOWN OF PICTOU 

A BRIEF history of the local churches in the County, 
with a list of the clergymen connected with them, 
from their organization to the present time, is here pre- 
sented. It is much to be regretted that it is more or less 
imperfect, owing to the loss of records and the difficulty 
in securing definite information. 

What has long been known as Prince Street Church, 
Pictou, was originally a section of the field of Dr. McGregor 
and Mr. Ross. It was formed into a separate congrega- 
tion in 1801, as the Harbor District. In 1804, Rev. 
Thomas McCulloch came to it as its first minister. For 
twenty years he was the only clergyman in Pictou Town. 
He resigned in 1824, and was succeeded by Rev. John 
McKinlay who died in 1850. Rev. James Bayne, D.D., 
was inducted in 1851, and continued as minister until his 
death, in 1876. Rev. William Donald followed, from 
1878 to 1883. He was succeeded by Rev. Alex. Falconer, 
D.D., who served for nearly a quarter of a century. Rev. 
Geo. C. Taylor followed. Rev. A. D. Archibald, M. A., the 
present minister was inducted in 1913. 

The first election of elders took place on May 6, 1787, 
when John Patterson and John Fraser were chosen to 
represent the Harbor District. In 1809 the session was 
increased by the addition of Geo. Ives, John Patterson 
and David Pottinger. 

The first minister of St. Andrew's Church was Rev. 
K. J. McKenzie, who was folio wed by Rev. Mr. Williamson. 
Rev. Andrew Herdman, of Scotland, was inducted into 
the charge in 1849, and ministered for thirty years. He 
was followed by Rev. Robt. Burnet, in 1880; Rev. John 
C. Callan, in 1886; Rev. Robt. Atkinson, in 1889; Rev. 

61 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Andrew Armit, 1893, and Rev. W. T. D. Moss, 1897. 
The present incumbent, Rev. L. H. MacLean, M. A., was 
inducted March 23, 1904. 

The first minister of Knox Church was Rev. Murdoch 
Sutherland. The next pastor was Rev. Alexander Ross, 
1860 to 1879. He was followed by Rev. James Carruthers, 
1880 to 1885. Rev. Geo. S. Carson, B. A., was inducted in 
1885, and resigned to become Editor of the Presbyterian 
Witness. Rev. Wm. McNally followed from 1908 to 1910. 
The present minister, Rev. A. W. Thomson, was inducted 
in 1911. The first Session consisted of Donald Ferguson, 
Murdoch McKenzie, Alexander McLeod. Alexander 
McKenzie, William McKenzie and Alexander Murray. 
Over a dozen young men from this church have given 
themselves to the ministry. 

Below are the names of the clergymen born in Pictou 
Town with place of birth and brief reference to those who 
are dead, and the present addresses of those who are still 
living. A few of the ministers mentioned in this chapter 
were not born in the county, but came into it when quite 
young, and were brought up and educated in it. The 
ministers belonging to denominations other than Presby- 
terian are so indicated. 

ROBERT S. PATTERSON, M.A., Pictou; Died in 1882. 

He was minister of the congregation at Bedeque, P. E. I., 
fifty-six years and six months. This is, perhaps, the longest 
unbroken pastorate in one congregation in the history of the 
Canadian Church. 

JOHN L. MURDOCH, M.A., Pictou; Died in 1873. 
JOHN GEDDIE, D.D., Pictou; Died in 1872. 

The founder of the New Hebrides Mission. 
WILLIAM McCuLLOCH, D.D., Pictou; Died in 1895. 

He was minister of the oldest regularly organized Presby- 
terian Church in Canada for over fifty years. He was or- 
dained at Truro, Feb. 14, 1839, and his whole life was spent 
in this one congregation. He was a man of eminence as a 
pastor, a presbyter and educator. He was a son of Dr. 
McCulloch of Pictou Academy. 

62 




CHURCHES IN NEW GLASGOW 
1 FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 2 UNITED CHURCH 3 ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

DANIEL M. GORDON, D.D., LL.D., Pictou; Kingston, Ont. 

D. M. STEARNS, D.D., Pictou; Germantown, Pa. 

Born in 1844; educated in Pictou Academy; teacher for 
a number of years in the Maritime Provinces; ordained in 
Boston, 1880. From 1886 to the present time he has been 
in the Reformed Episcopal Church. In 1892 he went to his 
present charge, where he is still pastor. He is a noted Bible 
Class teacher, and conducts Bible Classes weekly in New 
York, Philadelphia, Washington, etc. His church and 
Bible Classes help to support over a dozen missionaries in 
the foreign field. 

ISAAC M. PATTERSON, Pictou; Died in 1892. 

He was Pastor in Annapolis, Maryland, Milford, N. J., and 
Bloomsburg, Penn. 

JAMES PATTERSON, Pictou; Deceased. 

He was a son of Matthew Patterson and a minister in the 
Canadian Northwest. He was formerly a bookseller in Pictou. 

FRANCIS A. Ross, Pictou; New Glasgow, N. S. 

He spent twenty-two years in pastorates in the West Indies. 
He also served as Chaplain in the Boer War. Retired. 

J. R. DOBSON, B.D., Pictou; Montreal, P. Q. 

Pastor of St. Giles Church, one of the leading churches in 
Montreal. 

JAMES C. HERDMAN, D.D., Pictou; Died in 1910. 

Mr. Herdman was a child of the Kirk Manse, born in 1856. 
He was ordained at Campbellton, N. B., in 1877. In 1885 
he went west and took charge of Knox Church, Calgary, 
until 1902, when he was appointed Superintendent of Mis- 
sions for British Columbia and Alberta. 

WILLIAM C. HERDMAN, M.A., Pictou; Halifax, N. S. 

A. W. K. HERDMAN, B.A., Pictou; Calgary, Alta. 

Sons of Rev. Andrew Herdman, late of St. Andrew's Church, 
Pictou. 

PETER M. MACDONALD, M.A., Pictou; Toronto, Ont. 

DANIEL J. MORRISON, Pictou; Deceased. 

Graduated from Theological Seminary, Auburn, N. Y., and 
settled in New York State where he died. 

DONALD ERASER, B.A., Pictou; St. Peters, C. B. 

63 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

JOHN W. LOWDEN, Pictou; Newark, Del. 

DONALD A. MACKENZIE, Pictou; Tillamook, Ore. 

FENWICK W. FRASER, Pictou; Masillon, Ohio. 

CHARLES TUPPERBAILLIE, Ph.D., Pictou; Trinidad, B.W.I. 
Pastor Susamacher Church, San Fernando, and assistant 
Professor in the Theological Hall. 

A. H. FOSTER, B.D., Pictou Landing; Durham, West 
River. 

D. R. MACLEAN, B.A., Pictou Island; Hazelton, B. C. 

CHARLES ELLIOT MACKENZIE, Pictou; Galliopolis, Ohio. 
Mr. Mackenzie is a son of the late George A. Mackenzie, 
Pictou. He entered the ministry of the Church of England 
from Kings College, about thirty years ago, and after suc- 
cessful work in the Maritime Provinces, went to Ohio where 
he was appointed Archdeacon of the Diocese of Southern 
Ohio, U. S. A. He is a brother of President Mackenzie of 
Dalhousie University. 

LEWIS M. WILKINS, Pictou; Deceased. 

Son of Hon. Martin I. Wilkins, and pastor of the Episcopal 
churches in Stellarton and Pictou. 

FRANK BEATTIE, Pictou; Deceased. 

Mr. Beattie was born in 1834, and died at Wolfville, N. S., 
1912, aged seventy-seven years. His first public work was 
as a temperance lecturer and organizer. In 1870 he was 
ordained, and gave nearly forty years to the work of the 
Baptist ministry. 

ROBERT McEwEN, Pictou; Antigonish, N. S. 
Roman Catholic Church. 

RICHARD POWER, Pictou; Ontario, Can. 
Roman Catholic Church. 

WILLIAM E. PURCELL, Pictou. 

Father Purcell was born in Pictou in 1874. He attended 
the public schools of Pictou and Pictou Academy. In 1889, 
he entered St. F. X. college and in 1893, he began his philo- 
sophical course at the Grand Seminary at Montreal, where 
he also took a course in theology. He taught for a time at 
St. Anne's college, Digby County, as professor of English. 
He was ordained a priest in 1898 and was curate at Chatham 
and Bathurst, N. B., and parish priest at Jacquet River 
before going west. He died in Montana, Aug. 23, 1912. 

64 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

THE MINISTERS AND CHURCHES IN NEW GLASGOW 

The History of the churches in New Glasgow is largely 
the history of the Town, for they have played a foremost 
part in its life and growth. 

In 1787 a log church was built on the West side of the 
river. This was used until 1803 when a frame church was 
erected at Irishtown. In 1834 the congregation was in- 
corporated under the name of James Church and in 1852 
a large wooden building was erected in the town of New 
Glasgow. 

The first minister was the Rev. James McGregor, D.D. 
He came in 1786, and died in 1830. He was succeeded by 
Rev. David Roy, D. D., who came to Nova Scotia in 1830, 
and the following year was inducted minister of the con- 
gregation. He labored faithfully until laid aside by failing 
health in 1871. He died in 1873, aged 82 years, having 
preached the gospel for forty years with great energy and 
power. Rev. E. A. McCurdy, D.D., was minister from 
1871-1891. He was succeeded by Rev. James Carruthers, 
1892-1904. Rev. G. Ernest Forbes, was inducted in 
1904, and continues in charge. 

On May 30, 1888, the new St. Andrew's congregation 
was organized. The ministers have been : Rev. Alexander 
Robertson, 1888-1896, and Rev. W. McC. Thomson, 
1897-1906. On Nov. 5, 1907, James Church and New 
St. Andrew's united under the ministry of Rev. G. E. 
Forbes, with the name First Presbyterian Church. On 
Nov. 5, 1912, the cornerstone of the First Presbyterian 
Church was laid on the site of old James Church. It was 
opened and dedicated to public worship, April 12, 1914. 
The congregation worshipped in New St. Andrew's 
Church from June 1908 until the opening of their new 
church home. 

St. Andrew's Congregation was formed from the Church 
at Fraser's Mountain, and Rev. Donald A. Fraser, was 

65 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

minister until 1837. Rev. John Stewart was the second 
pastor, 1838-1845. For eight years they were without 
a pastor after the disruption. Rev. Allan Pollock was 
settled there in 1853 and continued until 1875. The 
other ministers of this church have been: Rev. George 
Murray, Rev. George Coull, Rev. Archibald Bowman, 
Rev. S. J. McArthur, B.D. The present incumbent, 
Rev. James A. Ramsay, B.A., was inducted in 1898. 

Primitive Church was an off-shoot from James Church, 
and was organized, May 25, 1845. The first meetings 
were held in the old Temperance Hall. Primitive Church 
was built in 1849 on the corner of Provost and McLean 
Streets. In 1848 Rev. George Walker arrived in Pictou 
from Scotland. He accepted a call to this church and 
was inducted Sept. 20, 1848. He was its only pastor. 
In 1873 the church was enlarged. In 1874 it was burnt. 
In 1845 Knox Church was built by the Free Church 
adherents. Rev. Mr. Stewart was the minister of Knox 
Church, 1845-1866. He was succeeeded by Rev. John 
M. Macleod and Rev. Robert Gumming, D.D. 

In the autumn of 1874, the year of the great fire, the 
two congregations got together and formed the United 
Church. They continued to worship in Knox Church 
until January 9, 1876, when the present building was 
opened and occupied. Rev. Mr. Walker was minister of 
the United Church until 1878, when he was relieved by 
the settlement of Rev. E. Scott, the congregation making 
Mr. Walker, Pastor Emeritus. Mr. Walker was a preacher 
of great ability and power. He was a most faithful minis- 
ter, and in every way adorned his calling. He died Feb. 
4, 1884, in the seventy-ninth year of his age. Rev. E. 
Scott, D.D. retired in 1891, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Anderson Rogers, D. D., who was pastor from July 1893 
to March 1908. Rev. John H. Mac Vicar, D.D. was 
minister from December 10, 1908 to March 17, 1912. 
Rev. J. Macartney Wilson, B.D., was inducted in May, 

66 




KNOX CHURCH 

ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH 



CHURCHES IX PICTOU TOWN 

3 HOME OF REV. JAS MCGREGOR. D.D. 

4 PRINCE ST. CHURCH 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

1913. Peter A. McGregor has been treasurer of the 
United Church since its organization, and, for three 
years was treasurer of Primitive Church. 

The First Presbyterian Church, Trenton, was organized 
in 1889 and the Church built in 1890. Rev. A. W. Thom- 
son was pastor from 1889 to 1890; Rev. H. R. Grant, 
April 13, 1891 to April 1904; Rev. D. C. Ross, Nov. 8, 
1904 to Sept. 1913. Rev. A. A. Macleod, present pastor, 
was inducted 1914. 

THE FOLLOWING MINISTERS WERE BORN AND BRED 
IN NEW GLASGOW 

PETER G. MCGREGOR, D.D., New Glasgow; Died in 1886. 

Dr. McGregor was the son of Rev. James McGregor, D.D. 
He studied Theology under Dr. McCulloch. In 1843 he 
was called to Poplar Grove Church, Halifax, where he was 
minister for twenty-five years. He was an excellent pastor 
and preacher. In 1868 he was appointed General Agent for 
the Church in Nova Scotia, the duties of which he discharged 
with fidelity and success. 

JOHN FORREST, D.D., LL.D., New Glasgow; Halifax, N. S. 

GEORGE SUTHERLAND, New Glasgow; Died in 1868. 

Mr. Sutherland was one of the first graduates of the Free 
Church Seminary, Halifax, and was settled first in Nova 
Scotia and afterwards in P. E. I., where he labored for a time. 
He went to New Zealand in 1886, and was called to Dunedin. 
In 1870 he was called to Sydney, Australia, where he labored 
until his death, which was instantaneous, as he was removing 
his outer clothing on his return from a congregational meeting. 

J. A. F. SUTHERLAND, New Glasgow; Winnipeg, Man. 

ROBERT J. CAMERON, New Glasgow; Died in 1879. 

Mr. Cameron was educated at Glasgow University. He 
was called to St. Andrew's Church, St. John, N. B., in 1870, 
and labored there for six years. Resigning that charge, he 
removed to Scotland, where he obtained an important congre- 
gation, the duties of which, however, proved too great for 
his strength. He died at the Manse, Burnt Island, Scotland, 
in the thirty-sixth year of his age. Mrs. Cameron was a 
daughter of the Hon. James Fraser, New Glasgow. 

67 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

A. H. CAMERON, New Glasgow; Keremeos, B. C. 
A brother of the Rev. Robert J. Cameron. 

HUGH W. FRASER, D.D., New Glasgow; Vancouver, B. C. 
Dr. Fraser studied in Manitoba College; was settled at 
Fort William, Ontario, and Holland, Manitoba; went to 
China, and returned from there to San Francisco, where 
he was a minister for a number of years. In 1904 he came 
to Vancouver, B. C. 

HUGH R. GRANT, B.A., New Glasgow; New Glasgow, N. S. 
General Secretary, Nova Scotia Temperance Alliance. 

FRANK L. FRASER, New Glasgow; Kennewick, Wash. 
Brother of the Rev. Dr. Fraser. 

WILLIAM MEIKLE, B.A., New Glasgow; Tuxford, Sask. 

Mr. Meikle, with the Rev. J. P. Gerrior, was for many years 
engaged in Evangelistic work. 

WILLIAM L. MACRAE, Abercrombie ; Golden, B. C. 
DONALD M. GRANT, New Glasgow; Cincinnati, Ohio. 
CHARLES J. CAMERON, New Glasgow; Vancouver, B. C. 
JOHN R. FRASER, New Glasgow; Avoca, N. Y. 
JAMES A. FRASER, B. A., New Glasgow; Pittsburg, Pa. 
ALEXANDER W. McL/EOD, New Glasgow; Summerland, 
B. C. 

Pastor, Baptist Church. 

GEORGE MACDONALD, New Glasgow; Baptist Church, 

U. S. A. 
SAMUEL A. MCDOUGALL, New Glasgow; Chester Basin, 

N. S. 

Pastor, Baptist Church. 

FRED A. SULLIVAN, New Glasgow; New Hampshire. 
Pastor, Methodist Church. 

JOHN BURNS, came to New Glasgow when a lad; Died in 

1851, aged 27 years. 
JAMES BURNS, New Glasgow; Bornin 1825; Diedinl907. 

WM. HENRY BURNS, D.D., New Glasgow; Evanston, 111. 
Mitchell Burns, who was a potter by trade, came with his 
wife, Ann Morrow, from the north of Ireland, in 1830 or 1831, 

68 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

and settled on what is now the John Connolly estate at 
Potter's Brook, to which stream he gave the name. In 1847 
the family removed to River John, where Mrs. Burns died 
in 1858, and Mr. Burns in 1871. They had a large and 
notable family of seven sons and four daughters. Three 
of the sons entered the Methodist ministry. John Burns 
died in early life at Sackville, N. B. 

James Burns was educated at Sackville, N. B., served 
several churches in the Maritime Provinces, and later in 
Chicago, and Idaho, where he died in 1907. He was a 
member, at one time, of Dr. Roy's Church. His daughter, 
Angeline, married Dr. Frederick Holmes, of San Diego, Cal. 
His eldest son, Jabez B. Burns, practices Dentistry in Poyette, 
Idaho. Another son, John Burns, is a Dentist in Oakland, Cal. 

William H. Burns was born in 1840 in New Glasgow; grad- 
uated from the Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. 
He is a member of the Rock River Conference, and spent 
most of his ministerial life in Chicago and vicinity. He 
married Miss Ann P. Foster, daughter of Rev. Caleb Foster, 
Aurora, 111. He is the author of "The Higher Critic's Bible; 
or, God's Bible?" "The Crisis in Methodism", and other books. 
His only son, William Foster Burns, is a graduate of Princeton 
University and Chicago Law School, and is a barrister in 
Chicago. 

The eldest of the family, Stuart Burns, lived in New Glasgow ; 
was a merchant in River John, but spent his later years as a 
druggist in Sydney, C. B., where he died. His son, Dr. W. F. 
Burns, born in River John, is now a practicing Dentist in 
Sydney, C. B. Anna Burns married William Perrin, farmer 
and tanner in River John. Their son, Dr. Albert M. Perrin, 
was born there, and is now practicing medicine in Yarmouth, 
N. S. Margaret Burns married George Langille, a mill 
owner in River John. Their son, M. K. Langille, is a Dentist 
in Truro, N. S. 

Robert E. Burns was a real estate dealer in New York and 
San Francisco, Cal. He died in Portland, Ore. Bion, his 
son, is a Dentist in San Francisco. Charlotte Burns married 
Alexander McDonald, a ship builder, River John, who now 
lives in Victoria, B. C. 

Samuel W. Burns, M.D., was born in New Glasgow, in 
1836, is now practicing medicine in Shelburne, N. S. His 
eldest daughter, married Dr. Muir, Dentist, Shelburne. Thomas 
M. Burns, M.D., born in New Glasgow, 1838, practiced med- 

69 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

icine in Shelburne, removed to Oakland, Cal., and died there. 
His son, Dr. Thomas M. Burns, is a Professor in the Denver 
Cross Medical College. Another son, Daniel C. Burns, is a 
lawyer and real estate dealer in Denver, Col. 

Carrie N. Burns married C. S. Lane, Dentist of P. E. I. 
Their eldest son, Franklin K. Lane, was born there July 15, 
1854. He lived in Pictou when a child, where his father 
practiced his profession. The family moved to California, 
where the son graduated from the University of California, 
in 1886. In 1889 he practiced law in San Francisco. From 
1897 to 1902 he was a member of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. In 1913 he was appointed Secretary of the 
Interior, in President Wilson's Cabinet. Mr. Lane is a 
Democrat in politics and was his party's candidate for mayor 
of San Francisco, for governor of the State and for the U. S. 
Senate. He is a man of fine personality and high character. 
For a score of years he has been a prominent figure in the 
public life of the Pacific Coast and is today one of the public 
men of mark and standing at Washington. George W. Lane, 
another son, practices law in San Francisco, Cal. Frederick 
Lane, a third son, is a Dentist in San Francisco. The Rev. 
F. E. Barret, New Glasgow, N. S., pastor of the Methodist 
Church is a great grandson of Mitchell Burns. 

EAST RIVER MINISTERS AND CHURCHES 

The East River Congregation was formed into a sepa- 
rate charge, in 1824, with the Rev. Angus McGillivray 
as its first minister. The West Branch Section was con- 
nected with it. In 1853 the church at Springville was 
built. The Church at Sunny Brae was erected in 1854, 
and was supplied by Rev. Mr. Blair for several years. 
In 1866, Rev. A. Maclean Sinclair became pastor of the 
Springville and Sunny Brae Congregations, and served 
them for a period of twenty-two years. Rev. John Calder 
was pastor, 1889-1892. In 1892, James Sinclair was 
settled as minister. In 1894 the Congregation was divided, 
Springville and Bridgeville forming a separate charge 
under Rev. Mr. Sinclair. He resigned in 1910; and in 
1911 Rev. E. A. Kirker, B. A. became minister. The 
Bridgeville Church was built in 1894. 

70 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

The first regular minister of the Kirk at St. Paul's was 
Rev. John Macrae, 1827 to 1847. He was succeeded by 
his son, Rev. D. Macrae. Rev. Simon McGregor was 
the minister 1860-1869. He was succeeded by Rev. 
William McMillian in 1875. He continued pastor until 
1888. The present St. Paul's church was built in 1855. 

The Sunny Brae and St. Paul's congregations were 
formed into a separate charge in 1894. In 1895 they called 
Rev. W. P. Archibald who was pastor until 1904. He 
was followed by the Rev. George A. Sutherland 1904-1911. 
The present pastor, Rev. D. K. Ross, was inducted Sept. 
1912. The first elders of Sunny Brae were Finlay Grant, 
James McDonald and Duncan McMillian. They had 
worthy successors in James Gumming, William Ross, 
John A. McDonald and John Cruikshank. A brother of 
the latter, D. B. Cruikshank, is now an elder and clerk 
of the Session. 

NAMES OF MINISTERS BORN ON EAST RIVER 

WM. MCMILLAN, Churchville; Died 1889. 

He was educated for the ministry in Scotland, and was for a 
number of years pastor at Earltown, whence he removed to 
Saltsprings. He was pastor for 13 years at St. Paul's Church, 
East River. He was a diligent minister, and a warm- 
hearted friend. 

SIMON MCGREGOR, Churchville; Deceased. 

He was minister of the West Branch and East River Kirk 
Churches for eight years. He spent thirteen years in pioneer 
work in British Columbia. He went to Scotland in 1881, and 
was elected minister of Appin, in the North of Scotland, 
where he labored until he retired. He died in Edinburgh, 
deeply regretted. 

ANGUS MCGILLIVRAY, Springville; Died 1869. 

JAMES MACLEAN, D.D., Springville; Died 1914. 

Nearly the whole of Dr. Maclean's ministry was spent in 
Colchester County at Shubenacadie and Great Village. He 
was a graduate of the West River Seminary, and finished his 
studies in 1853. He was an excellent preacher and minister 
and a most devoted friend. 

71 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

EBENEZER MCLEAN, Springville; Deceased. 

He was a nephew of the Rev. Dr. Maclean, and was a student 
for the ministry, but died in early life. 

JOHN D. MCGILLIVRAY, Springville, Truro, N. S. 
Retired from the Ministry. 

JAMES T. MCGILLIVRAY, Springville. 

A student in theology, died Oct., 1856, aged 24 years. 
Sons of Rev. Angus McGillivray. 

ROBERT GRANT, Springville; Died 1898. 

Studied in Pictou Academy and Edinburgh University. 

DAVID C. MACKINTOSH, D.D., Springville; Shenandoah, 

Iowa. 
FINLAY G. MclNTOSH, B.D., Springville; Dorchester, N. B. 

WM. R. McKAY, B.D., Springville; Kong Moon, So. 

China. 

ROBT. G. McKAY, B.A., Springville; So. Vancouver, B. C. 
WM. MACDONALD, B.A., Springville; Barney's River, N.S. 
ALVER McKAY, Springville; Hollyburn, B. C. 

JOHN A. MACDONALD, B.D., Bridgeville; Died 1890. 

Son of Duncan Macdonald and Mary McPhie; born Nov. 6, 
1849. While working at the carpenter's trade in Boston, he 
decided to devote himself to the ministry, and began his 
preparation in the New Glasgow High School. His studies 
being interrupted by a long illness, he was sent as a missionary 
to Trinidad, 1874 to 1877. He took a special course in Dal. 
Coll., 1877-79, continuing his study at the Pine Hill Divinity 
School. He attended Andover Theological Seminary, 1882- 
84, but seeking a more favorable climate, served as home 
missionary in Arizona, and afterward at different places in 
California. He continued his studies at the Pacific Theo- 
logical Seminary in the class of 1885, and was ordained pastor 
at Lincoln, Cal., May 21, 1885. The last few years of his 
life was a continual fight with sickness but he supplied congre- 
gations as he was able. His ministry, though brief and only 
kept up by an indomitable will, bore abundant fruit. He 
was a man of sincere piety, an earnest preacher and a most 
devoted friend. His whole life was blameless and beautiful. 
He died at Elgin, N. S., Jan. 29, 1890, at the age of forty 
years. 

72 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

A. H. FRASER, Bridgeville; Broken Bow, Neb. 
A. J. H. FRASER, Bridgeville; Port Morien, C. B. 

JAMES W. FRASER, St. Pauls; Died 1913. 

For forty years pastor of St. John's Church, Scotsburn, N. S. 

DONALD K. CAMPBELL, St. Pauls; Ottawa, 111. 

JOHN W. CAMPBELL, St. Pauls. 

Student for the ministry. Died, Delaware, Md., Feb. 18, 1874. 

SIMON W. Thompson, B. A., St. Pauls; Kindersley, Sask. 

WM. Ross, B. A., Sunny Brae; Vancouver, B. C. 
Thirty-three years pastor Prince William, N. B. 

ROBT. D. Ross, Sunny Brae; Died 1895. 

As a minister and preacher he won the affectionate confidence 
of the people. He had a most winsome disposition and a keen 
sense of humor, which made him a most agreeable com- 
panion. He was settled in Wolfville, N. S., in 1882, where he 
labored for about 10 years, until failing health compelled him 
to resign. 

ROBT. J. GRANT, B.D., Sunny Brae. 

Mr. Grant was cut off in the prime of life June 10, 1898, at 
Montreal, Can. While attending the General Assembly he 
and four young friends had gone on bicycles to visit the 
Lachine Rapids, when returning to the city he was run over 
by an electric car. His death was instantaneous He was a 
young man of high intellectual attainments, and devoted 
piety, and had a distinguished course in college. For two 
years he was settled at St. George's Church, River John, and 
his brief ministry was rich in promise. He died in the thirty- 
first year of his age. 

WM. GRANT, Sunny Brae. 

He was educated in the Presbyterian College, Halifax, and an 
additional year at Princeton Seminary, N. J. His pastorates 
were at Earl town and West Branch, seven years; at West River 
Clyde and Brookfield, P. E. I., nine years; at Port Morien, 
C. B., thirteen years; and at Grand River, eight years; in 
all some thirty-seven years. In every pastorate his work was 
a success. His careful preparation for the pulpit was con- 
tinued to the last, when for a few weeks before the end he was 
unable to go to the church, he sent the prepared sermon in 
manuscript to be read. The last of his sermons thus sent 

73 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

was read in the Grand River Church on Sunday, Dec. 16, 
1906. He died on the following Tuesday. Mr. Grant 
was greatly afflicted in his family circle. Melville, 
his eldest son was ordained to the ministry, but ill health 
laid its hand upon him and he died in early manhood. Clar- 
ence, a younger brother, was suddenly called away when en- 
gaged as a theological student in a mission field, and Mary 
Sibella, a sister, died soon after her graduation from the 
university. 

FINLAY R. MCDONALD, Sunny Brae. 

He was educated at the Academy. He pursued his theo- 
logical studies in Scotland, and after graduation was called 
to the pastorate of Cooper Angus, an important charge in 
Scotland, where he labored with fidelity for 21 years. He 
died in 1900. 

WM. P. GRANT, B.D., Sunny Brae; Truro, N. S. 
Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. 

WM. M. GRANT, M. A., Sunny Brae; Ayr, Ont. 

FINLAY H. MC!NTOSH, M.A., Sunny Brae; Sydney, C. B. 
Pastor, Falmouth Church. 

CHAS. D. MclNTOSH, M.A., Sunny Brae; River John, N.S. 
JAMES A. MCDONALD, B.A., Sunny Brae; Youngstown, 

Ohio. 

WM. C. Ross, B. A., Sunny Brae; Halifax, N. S. 
A. W. ROBERTSON, B. A., Centredale; Kennetcook, N. S. 

DUNCAN A. MACPHIE, M.A., Centredale; Boston, Mass. 
Secretary of the Evangelical Alliance. Office, 507 Tremont 
Temple. 

J. P. MACPHIE, M.A., Sunny Brae; New Glasgow, N. S. 

THE MINISTERS AND CHURCHES IN HOPEWELL 

Hopewell is a village of about 450 people, with a beauti- 
ful country surrounding it. The first church was built 
in 1820, one and a half miles above the village. Rev. 
John Macrae was the first minister, 1827-1844. His son, 
Rev. Donald Macrae, succeeded him, 1857-1859. He 
returned a second time, in 1870, and remained four years. 

74 




W. E. MACLELI.AN 
JOHN A. MACDONALD 



PROFESSIONAL MEN OF PICTOU 

3 JOHN P. MACPHIE 

4 W. B. MACDONALD 



5 ROBERT D. Ross 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

It was during his first ministry that St. Columba's Church 
was built in 1859. From 1860 to 1869 Rev. Simon 
McGregor was minister. He was succeeded by the Rev. 
Peter Galbraith 1875; the Rev. Peter Melville 1881, the 
Rev. Homer Putman 1893, Rev. John Macintosh 1898, 
and the present Pastor, Rev. C. Munro 1908. 

Union Church, Hopewell was organized in 1854. The 
present church was completed and opened in 1857. The 
first minister was Rev. John Mackinnon. He was in- 
ducted in 1858, and served the Church for eighteen years. 
He was a preacher of great vigor, and a most faithful 
pastor. The Rev. A. Maclean, D.D., was his worthy 
successor, 1877-1891. The first elders were Peter Ross, 
Robt. Munro, John McLean, Robt. Dunbar, Thomas 
Grant, Daniel Shaw, Enon McDonald and Angus McPhie. 
Rev. Simon Fraser was pastor in 1892; Rev. Wm. 
McNichol, in 1895; Rev. Hugh Miller, 1908, and the 
present minister, Rev. Geo. A. Logan, 1912. TheFerrona 
Church was an off-shoot from the Hopewell congregation. 
It was organized March. 3, 1896. Revs. W. H. Smith, 
A. M. Thompson and J. F. Policy have served it as pastors. 

MINISTERS BORN AND BROUGHT UP IN THIS DISTRICT 

REV. A. MACLEAN, D.D., Hopewell; Eureka, N. S. 

Retired from the Ministry. 

DONALD MACRAE, D.D., Hopewell; Died 1909. 
HUGH DUNBAR, Hopewell; Died 1857. 
HUGH Ross, Hopewell; Died 1858. 
CLARENCE MACKINNON, D.D., Hopewell; Halifax, N. S. 

Principal, Presbyterian College. 

ALBERT G. MACKINNON, M.A., Hopewell; Greenock, 
Scotland. 

Author of a series of books for young men: "Spiritually Fit"; 

"Tangible Tests"; "Truths for Today"; "God's Right of 

Way Through a Young Man's Life". 

Rev. Clarence and Albert G. Mackinnon are sons of the 

late Rev. John Mackinnon. 

75 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

JOHN B. MACLEAN, B. D., Hopewell, Huntington, Que. 
Author of "The Secret of the Stream", thoughtful religious 
essays on Life and Literature. 

A. D. MclNTOSH, M.A., Hopewell; Souris, P. E. I. 

JAS. R. MACDONALD, Hopewell. 

He was for many years a teacher in the public schools in the 
Province. Graduated from Princeton Seminary 1895, held 
pastorates in Fairville, N. B., Barney's River, Caledonia and 
Sheet Harbor, N. S. He died at Elmsdale, 1912. 

JOHN W. BRITTON, Hopewell; Pugwash, N. S. 

ASA J. CROCKETT, B. A., Hopewell; Hopewell, N. S. 
Graduated from the Rochester Baptist Seminary. 

DONALD Ross, D. D., Lome; Died 1907. 

At the age of 27 he entered the ministry and for four years 
was pastor in Seattle, Wash. Twenty-five years were spent 
in eastern Canada, when he removed to the West. He was 
a man widely known for his learning and for his faithful work. 

JOHN R. FRASER, M.A., Lome; Uxbridge, Ont. 
ALBERT M. MACLEOD, B.A., Lome; Hyde Park, Mass. 

WM. A. Ross, M.A., Lome; Moncton, N. B. 

General Secretary Sunday School, N. B. and P. E. I. 

D. K. Ross, B. A., Lome; Sunny Brae, N. S. 

JOHN CAMERON, D.D., Glengarry; 

Minister of Dundee, Canada for some time and for many 
years Parish minister of Dunoon, Scotland, where he died. 

JOSEPH HALLIDAY, Glengarry; Orange City, Fla. 
Pastor Congregational Church. 

THE MINISTERS AND CHURCHES OF STELLARTON. 

St. John's Church was organized in connection with 
the Kirk body. It was an offshoot from St. Andrew's 
Church, New Glasgow. Rev. Wm. M. Phillips was the 
first minister, inducted in 1863. In 1871, Rev. Chas. A. 
Dunn was settled over the congregation. He was followed 
by Rev. E. H. Burgess and Rev. D. M. Matheson. Rev. 
W. L. Cunningham, the present minister was inducted 
in 1908. 

76 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

Sharon Church is a child of old St. James' Church, New 
Glasgow. The original Sharon Church was built on the 
banks of the River, near Dr. Donnelly's house. On the 
5th of June, 1856, Rev. A. J. Mowatt, D.D., was settled as 
the first pastor of the church. Wm. McPherson was the 
father of the session of Sharon Church. He opened the 
first Presbyterian Sunday School when there were 
only eight scholars; and afterwards became the first 
Superintendent of the Sunday School. Dr. Mowatt was 
followed by Rev. Thos. Gumming, D.D. who served the 
church for ten years, 1875-1885. The Church was fortunate 
in having such able and eloquent ministers at its begin- 
ning. Rev. J. H. Turnbull was pastor another ten years, 
1885-1895. Rev. Wm. M. Tufts, B.D., became the fourth 
pastor in 1896, remaining twelve years. Rev. M. S. Ful- 
ton was ordained 1909, and resigned in 1913. The present 
pastor is the Rev. C. C. Mclntosh, B.A., inducted 1913. 

MINISTERS BORN IN STELLARTON AND RIVERTON. 
GEORGE M. GRANT, D.D., LL.D., Stellarton; Died 1902. 

CHAS. M. GRANT, D.D., Stellarton; Dundee, Scotland. 
Retired from the Ministry. 

JOHN MORTON, D.D., Stellarton; Died 1913. 

THOS. GUMMING, D.D. Stellarton; Stellarton, N. S. 
Retired from the Ministry. 

ROBERT GUMMING, D.D., Stellarton; Trinidad, B. W. I. 
JAMES FALCONER, Stellarton; Santa Clara, Calif. 

PETER A. DUNN, B.D., Stellarton; Arbuthnott, Scotland. 
Minister of the Parish Church, Arbuthnott, Scotland. 

WM. H. MCDONALD, Stellarton; Denver, Col. 

JOSEPH S. McKAY, Stellarton; Port Hill, P. E. I. 

Mr. McKay, well known evangelist, was ordained by pres- 
bytery of P. E. I., in 1913. 

77 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

CHAS. J. CONNOLLY, Ph.D., Stellarton; Antigonish, N. S. 
St. Francis Xavier College. 

RICHARD GILMORE, D.D., Stellarton. 

He was born in Scotland but came to N. S. with his parents 
when four years old. They settled at Plymouth, opposite 
Stellarton, where they lived for several years. Afterwards 
they moved to Ohio, U. S. A. His parents were Presbyterians 
but he entered the Roman Catholic Church and rose to be 
Bishop of Cleveland, where he died some years ago. He was 
the author of several religious works. 

ALEXANDER MCKENZIE, Riverton; Died 1860. 

He was the son of Thos. McKenzie and an uncle of Thos. 
Grant, Riverton. He went to Upper Canada where he spent 
most of his ministry. He founded the church at Goderich, 
Ont. For several years he was an instructor in the grammar 
schools at Goderich. 

JOHN CAMERON, Riverton; Died 1907. 

His grandparents were among the earliest settlers in Pictou 
County. He had the distinction of being Dr. McCulloch's 
last student, and of ministering to him during his last illness. 
In 1844 he was inducted at Nine Mile River, Gore and Ken- 
netcook, Elmsdale, where he labored with great energy and 
faithfulness for 32 years. Later he labored for some years 
at Bridgewater, N. S. He then retired to Bridgetown, N. S., 
where he died in the 90th year of his age, and the 63d of his 
ministry. Mr. Cameron was an ardent friend of education, 
a fearless champion of temperance. 

ALEXANDER FALCONER, D.D., Riverton; Died 1913. 

He became pastor successively in Zion Church, Charlotte- 
town; St. James' Church, Dartmouth; Greyfriar's Church, 
Trinidad; and Prince St. Church, Pictou. In 1906 he was 
chosen Moderator of the General Assembly. With rare 
qualifications of head and heart he efficiently discharged the 
responsible duties pertaining to all the important positions 
which he occupied during his long and busy life. He was a 
ripe scholar, and a faithful workman in the service of Christ. 

ALEXANDER CAMERON, Riverton; Died 1913. 

He held pastorates at Middle Stewiacke and Bass River, N. S., 
and at New London, P. E. I. He gave 31 years of devoted 
service to the church. He was a brother of Rev. John Cam- 
eron. 

78 




JOHN MCMILLAN, D. D. 
A. MACLEAN, D. D. 



RETIRED MINISTERS 

3 ROBE.RT GUMMING, D. D. 

4 THOMAS GUMMING, D. D. 
7 SAMUEL C. GUNN, D. D. 



5 A. MACLEAN SINCLAIR, LL.D. 

6 JOHN MURRAY 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

JAMES D. CAMERON, Riverton; Lonsdale, R. I. 

DAVID K. GRANT, M.A., Riverton; Olds, Alberta. 

SAMUEL MACNAUGHTON, M.A., Riverton; Preston, Eng- 
land. 

Graduate of Dalhousie University, and completed his course in 
Edinburgh. He settled in the Presbyterian Church at 
Preston, England, in 1877, where he has since remained. 
He is a devoted temperance worker and the author of several 
books, among them, "Doctrine and Doubt", "Our Children 
for Christ", "The Wines of Scripture". 

THE MINISTERS AND CHURCHES OF MIDDLE RIVER 
INCLUDING WESTVILLE AND GAIRLOCH 

St. Phillip's Church was built and completed Jan. 8, 
1871, with Rev. Wm. M. Phillips in charge. He was 
succeeded by Rev. Chas. Dunn who resigned in 1887; 
Rev. T. D. Stewart, 1888-1899; Rev. G. B. McLeod, 
1900-1902; Rev. D. M. Gillies, 1902-1903. Rev. W.W. 
McNairn, present pastor, was inducted, 1904. 

The first Carmel Church was erected in 1870, but while 
the dedication services were in progress, it was burned 
to ashes. A new church was soon erected, and Rev. John 
Lees was called to be pastor, 1873 to 1879. Rev. Robt. 
Cumming, D.D., was called in 1881 and resigned in 1912, 
closing a most happy and successful pastorate of 31 years. 
Rev. D. A. Frame is present pastor, 1913. 

The first minister in Gairloch was Rev. Hugh McLeod, 
1822. The second pastor, was Rev. Donald Mclntosh, 
1833-1844. The church was vacant for nine years. The 
next minister was Rev. A. Maclean, 1853-1857. He was 
also pastor at Saltsprings. Rev. Alex. McKay, 1859- 
1867. Rev. Neil Brodie was pastor for 13 years. He was 
followed by Rev. Thos. Irving and Rev. J. C. McLeod. 
In 1907, the Gairloch and Middle River sections were 
united with Rev. A. O. Morash, as pastor. Rev. Geo. 
Christie is the present pastor, inducted in 1911. The 
present church was built in 1858. 

79 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

MINISTERS BORN IN THIS DISTRICT. 

JOHN D. MURRAY, Middle River; Died 1906. 

He was settled at Port Hill, P. E. L, in 1865. He held pas- 
torates at Moncton, Buctouche and Red Bank, N. B. He 
died, aged 72 years, of which he had been 41 years in the 
ministry. 

ALEXANDER McBEAN, Middle River; Deceased. 

Secretary for the British American and Tract Society, 
Halifax, for many years. 

DUNCAN R. CROCKETT, Middle River; Deceased. 

For some years he rendered good service to the church in 
N. B. In 1882 he went to the U. S. locating at Greenwood, 
Mo. In 1891 he was called as Home Missionary in the 
Indian Territory, where he labored for many years among 
the Indians. 

JOHN THOS. CROCKETT, Middle River; Deceased. 

Pastor of the Adventist Church, Nashville, Tenn. and other 
places. Both sons of the late John Crockett, Middle River. 
Their mother was a daughter of Rev. Duncan Ross, West 
River. 

WM. DOUGLAS, Middle River; Died 1904. 

He was born in 1856, studied at the Moody Institute, Chicago; 
for seven years engaged in Evangelistic work; for seven years 
pastor in Minnesota. In 1904, he went to the Pacific Coast. 
He died at Portland, Ore. 

A. MURRAY PORTER, B.A., Alma. 

Graduated Union Theological Seminary, N. Y., 1914. 

JOHN R. DOUGLAS, B. A., Concord; Lake Megantic, P. Q. 

ALEX. Robinson, Concord; Died 1904. 

Educated at the Springfield School of Workers. Settled in 
Nebraska, 1888, and afterwards in Wyoming. Died in 
Boulder, Col. 

DUNCAN MCDONALD, Gairloch; Strathcona, Alta. ; Retired. 
ROBERT MCDONALD. Gairloch. 

Brother of Duncan McDonald, a student for the ministry, 
Free Church College, Halifax. Died of smallpox, Jan. 12, 
1850. 

80 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

WALTER Ross, Millbrook; Died 1882. 

He was settled at Carleton Place, Ont., in 1862, where he did 

faithful work. This was his only pastorate. He died in 

the 48th year of his age. 

A. H. DENOON, B.D., Westville; Antigonish, N.S. 
THOS. JOHNSTONE, Westville; Maxville, Ont. 
CHAS. GUMMING, Ph. D., Westville, 

Professor in the Theological Hall, San Fernando, Trinidad. 

Son of Rev. Robert Gumming, D.D. 
JOHN KINGON, Westville; Park River, Minn. 
J. H. HAMILTON, B.A., Westville; New Waterford, C. B. 
JOHN P. GERRIOR, Granton; Oakland, Calif. 

MINISTERS AND CHURCHES IN MCLENNAN'S MOUNTAIN, 

BLUE MOUNTAIN, EAST RIVER ST. MARY'S 

AND BARNEY'S RIVER 

Hugh Fraser, who came to Pictou on the Hector settled 
on McLennan's Brook. One son, Donald, known as 
Donald Miller came with him. Another son, John, long 
known as John Squire arrived a few years later. John 
McLennan another Hector passenger settled at the mouth 
of McLennan's Brook and gave his name to that stream. 

Rev. Donald A. Fraser was the first settled minister in 
McLennan's Mountain, 1817 to 1837. The second pastor 
was Rev. Alex. McGillivray, 1838 to 1862. Rev. Wm. 
Stewart succeeded him in 1863, and was pastor for 44 years. 
In 1908 McLennan's Mountain congregation and McLen- 
nan's Brook united and Rev. E. A. Kirker had charge for 
two years. The present pastor Rev. Wm. Dawson, B.D., 
was settled in 1910. 

The first settlers at Blue Mountain came from Glen 
Urquhart, Scotland in 1818. The first church was built 
about 1834. The walls were built of logs, as boards had 
to be sawed by hand. The second church was erected in 
1856, and the present church, in 1906. From 1834 to 
1850 they had no regular pastor, but occasional supplies. 
The first settled minister was Rev. D. B. Blair, from 1850 

81 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

to 1890 when he resigned, and Blue Mountain and Garden 
of Eden became a separate charge. Other pastors were 
Rev. D. M. Henderson, Rev. E. J. Rattee, and Rev. F. L. 
Jobb. Present pastor, Rev. W. H. Sweet, came in 
June 1909. 

The first settlers of Barney's River were from the 
Highlands of Scotland. William McKenzie settled at 
Barney's River in 1807. He had six sons who were all 
land surveyors and roadmakers. John, the eldest son 
had a high name as a civil engineer. He acted as assistant 
to James Crearer, Pictou, in locating and building the 
Albion Mines Railroad. He was a number of years in 
the Crown Land office, Halifax. 

Adam, second son, was for many years supervisor of 
roads from Colchester County to the strait of Canso. 
James was deputy surveyor for the County of Inverness. 
Francis spent much time in Cape Breton making roads. 
Hugh, the youngest son, was for many years a surveyor 
in South Africa. * 

Donald Bruce came to Pictou in the ship Harmony in 
1822 and settled at Upper Barney's River. Angus McKay, 
Donald McKay, Donald Douglass, John McLeod and 
Alexander Grant came on the same ship. Margaret, 
daughter of Donald Bruce married Edward Jackson, Pine 
Tree. George, his second son married Christy, daughter 
of Hector Murray, by whom he had Hector and other 
children. He was an elder under Dr. Blair. 

Donald Robertson came from Perthshire, in 1801 and 
settled above Avondale in 1819. He died in 1834 aged 
seventy three years, leaving a large family. His wife 
died in 1870, aged one hundred years, one month and one 
day. They had forty-eight grandchildren, of whom Rev. 
Hugh A. Robertson, D.D., Erromanga, is one. 

Angus Murray, a native of Sutherlandshire, married 
Elizabeth McKay, by whom he had William, Andrew, and 
three daughters. He came to Pictou with his family in 

82 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

1812. He taught school in New Glasgow for some time. 
His eldest son, William married in 1821 and had Angus, 
Andrew, Helen, Jane, Eliza and Mary. Eliza was married 
to William Murray, at Grand Narrows, C. B. and was the 
mother of the present premier of Nova Scotia. Premier 
Murray narrowly escaped being born a Pictonian. 

In 1830 a church was erected at Kenzieville. It stood 
near the Cemetery. At the same time a church was built 
at Lower Barney's River, near John Copeland's place. 
Rev. D. McKichan, Kirk minister, was pastor of the 
two churches for many years. 

In 1846, Rev. D. B. Blair, Free Church, came to Barney's 
River and for 40 years was minister of the Free Church 
congregation. Other ministers of the Kirk were: Revs. 
James Mair, James McDonald, A. J. McKichan, J. R. 
McDonald, J. A. Cairns, E. Gillies, and D. K. Ross. The 
present pastor, Rev. Wm. MacDonald, came Feb. 25, 1913. 

The present church at East River St. Mary's was com- 
pleted in 1873, when the Kirk and the Free Church 
united. The following ministers served the congregation: 
Revs. Hugh McKenzie, Alex. Campbell, C. B. Pitblado, 
Robt. Gumming, John Ferry, Andrew Boyd, J. D. Mc- 
Farlane, A. D. Sterling, and Wm. MacDonald. Rev. J. H. 
Kirk is the present pastor. 

MINISTERS BORN IN THIS SECTION 

WM. FRASER, D.D., McLennan's Brook; Died 1892. 

Dr. Fraser was born at McLennan's Brook, May 19, 1808. 
He received his academic and theological education at Pictou 
Academy of which Dr. McCulloch was then the head. At the 
age of twenty-six he was sent as a missionary to Upper Canada, 
and a year later, was settled at Bond Head, Ontario, his first 
and only pastorate. Here he labored most faithfully for 
forty-six years until his retirement in 1881 when he removed to 
Barrie. 

He was active in educational work; an earnest advocate of 
temperance and always a close attendant on church courts. 
In 1851 he was appointed clerk of the U. P. Synod; at 

83 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

the union of 1861 to the Joint Clerkship of the Canada Presby- 
terian Synod; and in 1875, to the Joint Clerkship of the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Canada. He con- 
tinued in this office until 1892, in his 85th year. 

Dr. Fraser was a man of calm, judicial spirit, excellent busi- 
ness qualities, unvarying industry and punctuality and 
always in perfect health till his latest years. He died on 
Christmas day, 1892. He was thrice married. In 1834 to 
Jane Geddie, sister of the Rev. John Geddie, by whom he had 
three children. Second, to Nancy McCurdy of Onslow, N. 
S., in 1844. Three sons of this marriage were Rev. J. B. 
Fraser, M. D., Annan, Ont., Rev. R. Douglas Fraser, D.D., 
Editor and Business Manager, Presbyterian Publications, 
Toronto; and W. H. Fraser, M.A., Professor of Spanish and 
Italian, University of Toronto. Miss Jane Wells Fraser, 
daughter of the Rev. R. D. Fraser, D.D., is assistant editor of 
the Presbyterian Publications. 

Third, he married Maria James Nicholas of Cuyahoga Falls, 
Ohio, and the children of this marriage were: George A. H. 
Fraser, M.A., Barrister, Denver, Colorado; and Miss Emma 
M. N. Fraser, M.A., Ph.D., Wheaton College, Norton, Mass. 

SIMON FRASER, McLennan's Brook; Died 1912. 

He was a son of Alexander Fraser and Margaret Campbell, 
daughter of Alexander Campbell, Elder, McLennan's Brook. 
He was a graduate of Free Church College, Halifax. He settled 
in New Brunswick for some time, but went to Texas where 
he spent the remainder of his ministry. He died in the 
seventy-eighth year of his age. 

ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, McLennan's Brook; Died 1908. 
He was born in 1855. His first pastorate was at Noel, 1887; 
the second, Merigomish, 1892. He died in the 53d year of 
his age. His death came most unexpectedly. Having gone 
to Noel to attend the funeral of a loyal supporter of the 
Presbyterian Church, he was stricken while in the pulpit, and 
in a short time passed away in the same pulpit in which he 
began his ministry. 

"How beautiful it is for man to die, 

Upon the walls of Zion! To be called 

Like a watch-worn and weary sentinel 

To put his armour off and rest in heaven." 

WM. McHARDY, McLennan's Brook. 
Died while preparing for the ministry. 

84 










REV. WILLIAM FRASER. D. D. 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

JOHN F. FORBES, Blue Mountain; Died 1905. 

He was born in 1834; received his education in Halifax and 
in Princeton Seminary. He was ordained 1867, as pastor 
of Union Centre and Lochaber, where he labored for 19 years. 
In 1886 he accepted a call to Durham, and from there, 8 
years later, to St. Andrew's Church, Sydney, C. B. In all 
these charges he served with fidelity and success. He died 
in the 71st year of his age. 

ADAM G. FORBES, Blue Mountain. 

He came to Pictou when an infant; educated at the Free 
Church College, Halifax; his first charge was at Buctouche, 
N. B. From there he went to Ontario and some years later 
with a colony of his people, he went to No. Dakota, where he 
died in 1894. 

GEO. M. Ross, B.A., Blue Mountain, North Honan, China. 

DAVID C. Ross, B.A., Blue Mountain; Lower Stewiacke, 

N. S. 
ALEX. L. FRASER, B.D., Blue Mountain, Great Village, 

N. S. 

Published three volumes of poems. "Sonnets and other 
Verses", "At Life's Windows", "Fugitives". 

HUGH MILLER, M.A., Garden of Eden; Glace Bay, C. B. 
SAMUEL MC!NTOSH, Garden of Eden; Deceased. 
Student for the ministry. 

REV. A. MACLEAN SINCLAIR, LL.D., Glenbard; Hope- 
well, N. S. 

Rev. A. Maclean Sinclair is the highest authority in Canada 
on the Gaelic language and literature, and owns one of the 
best Gaelic libraries on the continent. He is also recognized 
in the Old Country as an eminent Gaelic scholar and student. 
He is the author of "Clarsach Na Coille", a collection of Gaelic 
hymns and songs, "Gaelic Bards", from 1411 to 1825, "The 
Mac Bards", two vols; "The Clan Gillean, or the History of 
the Macleans". This is a large and handsome octavo volume, 
and is the standard work on the history of the Clan. He is 
a regular contributor to the Celtic Magazine, Edinburgh, 
and other periodicals. He is a grandson of John Maclean, 
the well known Gaelic poet. In 1907, he was appointed 
lecturer in the Gaelic Language and Literature in Dalhousie 
University. 

85 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

JAMES MCGREGOR MACKAY, East River St. Mary's; 
Died 1911. 

His father was Alex. MacKay, one of the first settlers at East 
River St. Mary's. He prosecuted his studies at West River 
Seminary, being one of Dr. Ross' first students. In 1855 
he was inducted into the charge of Parrsboro, which at that 
time had ten preaching stations, and was forty miles in length. 
In 1860 he was called to Economy and Five Islands where he 
remained for 18 years. His next charge was at Woodstock, 
N. B. In 1884 he accepted a call to Shediac. After 37 years 
of service he retired, in 1892, to New Glasgow, where he died 
in the 93d year of his age. His physical powers were remarkable. 
As a preacher he was evangelical; as a presbyter he was loyal 
to the Church; as a friend his hospitality was unfailing. 
It is noteworthy that he never missed a meeting of Synod; 
never had a month's holiday, and, during his public ministry, 
there were only two Sabbaths on which he was unable to 
preach. 

SAMUEL C. GUNN, D.D., East River St. Mary's; Boston, 
Mass. 

For nearly twenty years minister of Scotch Church, Boston. 
Retired from the Ministry. 

WM. GUNN, East River St. Mary's; Died 1900. 

Mr. Gunn was educated at Colgate University, N. Y., and 
was a pastor of the Baptist denomination. His first charge 
was at Springfield, N. Y. In 1878 he was appointed Chaplain 
of the Prison, Fort Madison, Iowa. For 20 years he served 
in this capacity, and accomplished a great work in the reforma- 
tion of the inmates of the prison. 

ADAM GUNN, East River St. Mary's; Died 1903. 

Mr. Gunn was pastor for 16 years at Gore and Kennetcook, 
N. S., and at Cardigan, P. E. I., 10 years. In 1902 he went 
to the Northwest, but in the following year he died. 

A. D. GUNN, East River St. Mary's; Died 1898. 

In 1883 he was called to Upper Stewiacke, where he labored 
for four and a half years, until failing health compelled him 
to resign. He was a brother of Rev. S. C. Gunn of Boston. 

DUNCAN CAMERON, East River St. Mary's; Pittsburg, Pa. 
Rev. A. G. Cameron, B. Sc., Sylvania, Pa. and Rev. A. H. 
Cameron, M.A., Detroit, Mich., are cousins of Rev. Duncan 
Cameron. 

86 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

WM. A. MASON, B.A., East River St. Mary's; Wetaskiwin, 
Alta. 

JOHN S. CLARK, East River St. Mary's; Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

Prof, of Latin, University of Minneapolis. 

HUGH A. ROBERTSON, D.D., Barney's River; Erromanga, 
New Hebrides. 

Author, "Erromanga, the Martyr Isle". 

A. J. McKiCHAN, Barney's River; Winnipeg, Man. 
Retired from the Ministry. 

A. D. SUTHERLAND, Barney's River; Fort Sill, Okla. 
Chaplain Field Artillery, United States Army. 

L. A. MACLEAN, B.A., Barney's River; Danville, Quebec. 

WM. CRAIGIE, Barney's River; Died 1890. 
Pastor, Baptist Church. 

ALEX. J. McLEOD, Barney's River; Denmark, N. S. 
Pastor, Baptist Church. 

WM. GORDON, Barney's River. 

Pastor of the Methodist Church. He labored in California, 
where he died in 1904. 

MINISTERS AND CHURCHES IN MERIGOMISH, 

SUTHERLAND'S RIVER, THORBURN, LITTLE 

HARBOR AND BAILEY'S BROOK 

The present church at Merigomish was built in 1869. 
The French River Church, in 1861 or 1862. The two 
churches maintained a separate existence from 1860 to 
about 1895, when they were united into one charge. The 
ministers in order of induction were: Revs. Wm. Patrick, 
A. P. Miller, K. J. Grant, H. McD. Scott, Daniel McGregor, 
C. S. Lord, Wm. R. Muir, Alex. Campbell, and A. S. Weir. 
The present pastor is A. F. Fisher, B. D., April 13, 1911. 

Rev. Mr. Cock of Truro preached the first sermon in 
Merigomish at Morrison's house, about 1784. The first 
elders were Walter Murray, John Small, and George Roy. 

87 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

The first settlers at Sutherland's River were from the 
Highlands of Scotland. The River was named after 
Sutherland, whose son, John, was the first child baptized 
belonging to Sutherland's River. Feb. 3, 1854 a site was 
bought for a church and the people proceeded to build. 
The congregation was made up of members from the three 
branches of the Presbyterian Church: the Kirk, the Free 
Church and the Presbyterian Church of N. S., united. This 
was the first union Presbyterian Church in the Province. 

The Congregation of Thorburn was organized in 1875, 
and the two made one charge. Rev. W. T. Bruce, M.D. 
was called in 1876, and resigned in Jan. 1881. Rev. Isaac 
Murray, D.D. was inducted pastor in 1882; Rev. A. W. 
McLeod 1885; Rev. James A. Mackenzie 1899. His 
successor was Rev. John Harris, 1912. James W. McLean 
has been clerk of the Session for 28 years, and choir leader 
for over 40 years. 

The Little Harbor Congregation was organized in 1864, 
and Rev. J. A. F. Sutherland was the first pastor. He was 
followed by Rev. Wm. Maxwell in 1868, who also had charge 
of Fisher's Grant. During his ministry the church was 
built. He resigned in 1880, and the pastors who succeeded 
him were: Revs. Robert Laird, McLeod Harvey, John 
B. Maclean, John W. Penman, R. J. Douglass, A. D. 
Mclntosh and A. J. McDonald (1910) the present pastor. 

MINISTERS BORN AND BRED IN THIS DISTRICT 

JOHN CAMPBELL, Merigomish; Deceased. 

For some years he was pastor of St. Andrew's Church, Hali- 
fax, and for 18 years minister of Buccleuch parish Church, 
Edinburgh, Scotland, where he died. 

ISAAC S. SIMPSON, Merigomish; Chicago, 111. 

WM. H. SMITH, B.D., Ph.D., Merigomish; Fredericton, 

N. B. 

Pastor, St. Paul's Church. 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

EDWIN SMITH, M.A., Merigomish; McLeod, Alta. 
A. A. SMITH, B. A., Merigomish; Verschoyle, Ont. 

F. W. THOMPSON, B.A., Merigomish; St. John, N. B. 

Pastor, Calvin Church. 

LAWRENCE B. CAMPBELL, Merigomish. 

Theol. Student. Son of late Rev. Alexander Campbell. 

W. B. MACDONALD, Merigomish; Lourdes, N. S. 
Pastor of the Roman Catholic Church. 

JOHN CHISHOLM, B.A., Sutherland's River; Montreal, Can. 
Pastor, Victoria Church. 

ALEX. W. McKAY, Sutherland's River; Deceased. 
Pastor for some time at Streetsville, Ont. 

JAMES M. SUTHERLAND, Sutherland's River; E. Pepperell, 
Mass. 

Pastor, Methodist Church. 

JOHN LAMONT, Sutherland's River; Deceased. 

Graduated but never had a charge. For many years he was 
a successful colporteur for the National Bible Society, in the 
Maritime Provinces. 

JOHN A. MACGLASHEN, B.D., French River; Bridgeport, 
C. B. 

A. W. POLLOCK, B.A., French River; Deceased. 
Student in Theology. Drowned at French River. 

JAMES A. MCL/EAN, B.A., Thorburn; Mahone Bay, N. S. 

JOHN J. MACDONALD, Thorburn; Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Pastor, South Presbyterian Church. 

WM. MACPHERSON, Thorburn; Waterville, N. S. 
A. S. WEIR, Thorburn; Swan River, Manitoba. 
J. F. McKAY, Thorburn; Clyde River, N. S. 
WILLIAM FORBES, B.A., Little Harbor; Tatamagouche, 
N. S. 

G. ERNEST FORBES, B.A., Little Harbor; New Glasgow, 
N. S. 

Pastor, First Presbyterian Church. 

JOHN G. GOLQUHOON, B.A., Little Harbor; Millerton.N.B. 

89 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

EDWIN H. BURGESS, Little Harbor; Sydney, C. B. 

Editor, "Canadian Commonwealth". Author "At the Place 
which is called Calvary", a volume of sermons, and "For 
Canada and the Old Flag". 

THOMAS F. MCGREGOR, Chance Harbor; Hawarden, Sask. 

THE FOLLOWING ARE CLERGYMEN OF THE 
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 

DONALD MACKINNON, Ardness; Died at Grand Narrows, 
C. B. 

DUGAL MACKINNON, Ardness; Died at Dundas, Ont. 
J. J. MACKINNON, Ardness; Bailey's Brook, N. S. 
C. F. MACKINNON, Bailey's Brook; Sydney Mines, C. B. 
M. W. MACKINNON, D.C.L., Lismore; Vancouver, B. C. 
DONALD M. MACGREGOR, D.D., Lismore; Judique, C. B. 
RONALD MACDONALD, Lismore; Pictou, N. S. 

MINISTERS AND CHURCHES IN WEST RIVER 
AND GREEN HILL 

The West River is one of the oldest congregations in 
the County. Rev. Duncan Ross took the pastoral over- 
sight of the congregation in 1795 and continued to be 
pastor for 39 years. He was succeeded by his son, Rev. 
James Ross, D. D., who was inducted in 1835, and resigned 
in 1852. 

James Watson followed him and remained for 5 years. 
In 1858 the congregation was divided into two separate 
charges. The one known as Central Church called Rev. 
James Thomson and the other congregation, Rev. George 
Roddick. At the close of 20 years' service, both resigned, 
when a reunion was effected, in 1879, and Rev. A. W. 
McLeod settled as pastor. In 1886 Rev. J. F. Forbes was 
inducted and Green Hill was united with West River. 
Rev. J. R. Coffin was called in 1895 and Rev. C. J. Crowdis 
in 1907. The present pastor is Rev. A. H. Foster, inducted 

90 




GROUP OF CHURCHES 



1 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, SPRINGVILLE 

2 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, DURHAM 

3 ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, SCOTSBURN 

4 SHARON CHURCH, STELLARTON 



5 HOPEWELL VILLAGE AND CHURCH 

6 SALEM CHURCH, RIVER JOHN 

7 ST. JAMES CHURCH, PICTOU 

8 VILLAGE OF SUNNY BRAE 



9 CARMEL CHURCH, WESTVILLE 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

in 1913. The West River congregation has always been a 
centre of educational and missionary endeavor. 

The church at Green Hill was built in 1848. Rev. 
George Patterson, D.D., was the first minister, inducted 
1849, resigned 1876. Rev. William Stuart was pastor 1877 
to 1884. The other pastors were: Revs. Forbes, Coffin, 
Crowdis and Foster. 



NAMES OF MINISTERS BORN IN THIS DISTRICT, WITH 

PLACE OP BIRTH AND ADDRESSES OF 

THOSE STILL LIVING 

JAMES Ross, D.D., West River; Died 1886. 

EBENEZER Ross, West River; Died 1891. 

Mr. Ross was inducted at Folly Village, 1849, and remained 
in this, his only charge until 1877, a ministry of 28 years. He 
then resigned on account of ill health, and removed to Truro, 
where he resided until his death. He was possessed of rare 
vigor and much learning. 

DUNCAN MCDONALD, West River; Deceased. 

He was a member of the first class of theological students 
under Dr. McCulloch. 

JOHN MCDONALD, West River; Deceased. 
Student for the ministry. 

JOHN J. RICHARDS, West River; Died 1889. 

Mr. Richard's whole ministry was spent in Brockville Pres- 
bytery, Ontario, where he was held in high esteem as a faith- 
ful pastor and preacher. 

JAMES D. MURRAY, West River; Died 1914. 

ANGUS MCKENZIE, West River; Died 1911. 

He went to Kansas in 1872, and to the Pacific Coast in 1874 
where nearly all his ministry was spent. He married Anna 
McPherson, Nova Scotia, in 1888. He was a faithful minister 
and did good work in the organization of new churches. 

JOHN D. McL/BAN, West River; Deceased. 
Missionary to Japan. 

91 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

D. STILES FRASER, B.A., Durham; Elderbank, N. S. 
His son, E. J. O. Eraser, B.A., was appointed Missionary to 
Korea in 1914. 

JOHN M. MACLEOD, West River; Deceased. 

Mr. Macleod was one of the first who received his education 
at the West River Seminary. In 1853 he began his ministry 
at Richmond Bay, P. E. I., where he spent 6 years. His next 
pastorage was at Newport, N. S. From there he went to 
Knox Church, New Glasgow, N. S. In 1871 he was called 
to Zion Church, Charlottetown, where for 18 years he labored 
with zeal and success. He left the island in 1889 and went to 
Vancouver, to minister to a new congregation. Mr. Macleod 
was a vigorous preacher and a faithful pastor, and his mem- 
ory is cherished in all his congregations. He was the author 
of "The History of Presbyterianism in Prince Edward Island". 

WILLIAM McC. THOMSON, M.A., Durham; Port of Spain, 
Trinidad. 

Pastor, Greyfriars Church. 

A. W. THOMSON, M.A., Durham; Pictou, N. S. 
Sons of the late Rev. James Thomson. 

D. MCDONALD CLARK, B.A., Durham; Middle Stewiacke, 
N. S. 

DAVID CLARK, Durham; Died 1882. 

He was a son of the late David Clark, elder, and had the 
ministry in view. 

HENRY MACDONALD, Durham; Deceased. 

He died at Paterson, N. J., in 1899, just after being ordained. 

D. G. COCK, M.A., West River; Mhow, Central India. 
FOREST L. FRASER, Durham; Penn Yan, N. Y. 
Pastor, Baptist Church. 

JOHN MCLEAN, M.A., Green Hill; Died 1837. 

ALEX. BLAIKIE, D.D., Green Hill; Died 1885. 

Born 1804, educated at Pictou Academy and Halifax, a 
Missionary in the Western States, 1831-1835. In 1836 he 
became pastor at York, N. Y. and continued for nine years. 
In 1846 he came to Boston and established a congregation in 
connection with the United Presbyterian Church, and con- 
tinued pastor of it until he retired in 1880. His work in 

92 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

Boston was marked by great labor and patience. He was 
the author of "Philosophy of Sectarianism", and "History of 
Presbyterianism in New England", and other works. William 
Blaikie, author, lawyer, athlete, was his son. 

JOHN W. MCKENZIE, D.D., Green Hill; Australia. 
Retired from Missionary Work. 

JAMES A. MACKENZIE, B.A., Green Hill; Elmsdale, N. S. 

EDWARD GRANT, Green Hill; Died 1894. 

In 1869 he was inducted at Kempt and Walton, and in 1872 was 
called to Upper Stewiacke to succeed the late Rev. Prof. 
Smith, D.D., and from that, in 1891, to Middle Musquodoboit, 
to succeed the late Rev. Dr. Sedgwick. Mr. Grant was 52 
years of age, and for nearly 25 years he was a most faithful 
minister in the Church. 

D. W. CAMERON, Green Hill; Died 1903. 

For many years Mr. Cameron was the pastor of Presbyterian 
Churches in Canada and the United States, but in later 
years entered the Church of England at Yonkers, N. Y., where 
he died. 

JOHN G. CAMERON, Green Hill; Died 1897. 

He was educated at Princeton Seminary, and ordained at the 
early age of twenty-one. The whole of his ministry was 
spent in Prince Edward Island, where he was greatly beloved 
as a man and a minister. His charges were in Bonshaw, 
Souris and Murray Harbor. 

GEORGE GORDON MAHY, D.D., Green Hill; Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Secretary of the General Assembly's Committee on Evangel- 
ism, Presbyterian Church in U. S. A. 

THOMAS McLEAN, Green Hill; Deceased. 

Was preparing himself for missionary work when he died. 

NORMAN G. REID, Green Hill; Halifax, N. S. 
Theological Student. 



93 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

MINISTERS AND CHURCHES OF SCOTSBURN, INCLUDING 
ROGERS HILL AND PLAINFIELD 

St. John's Church (Kirk) was built in 1838. It was 
the first church in the place and is still standing. Rev. R. 
Macaulay and Rev. D. McConnachie were the first 
ministers. Rev. John Sinclair was pastor for five years. 
In 1860 Rev. John Goodwill was inducted and resigned 
in 1871 to go as missionary to New Hebrides. The last 
minister of the Kirk church was the Rev. J. W. Fraser 
who spent his whole ministry at Scotsburn. 

The Free Church was formed, after the disruption, in 
1844, and in 1862 Bethel Church was built. Rev. Alex. 
Sutherland was the first minister. The other pastors in 
order of induction were: Revs. Alex. Stirling, 1871; 
J. A. Cairns, 1887; Thos. Cumming, D.D., 1898; W. A. 
Ross, 1908. Upon Mr. Fraser's retirement in 1907, St. 
John's Church and Bethel were united. Rev. A. D. 
Stirling is the present pastor, inducted 1910. 

MINISTERS BORN IN THIS DISTRICT 

JOHN MURRAY, Scotsburn, Stanley Bridge, P. E. I. 

Retired from the Ministry. 
JAMES MURRAY, B.D., D.D., Scotsburn; Toronto, Ont. 

Pastor, Erskine Church. 
ROBERT C. MURRAY, Scotsburn; Died in India, 1888. 

GEORGE MURRAY, Scotsburn; Nicola, B. C. 
Retired from the Ministry. 

JOHN GORDON, Scotsburn; Nelson, B. C. 

AENEAS GORDON, Scotsburn, Kings Kettle, Fifeshire, 
Scotland. 

HUGH McL/EOD, Scotsburn. 

Born 1826, graduated, Amherst College 1851, studied, Bangor 
Theological Seminary. Settled in Springfield, Ohio, as 
pastor of the Congregational Church. In 1857 went to New 
Hampshire, where he spent the most of his ministerial life. 
During the Civil War he served honorably as Chaplain in the 
Army. He died at Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 19, 1900. 

94 




JAMES A. MACKENZIE 
D. STILES ERASER 



MINISTERS OF TODAY 

3 H. W. ERASER, D. D. 

4 JAMES MURRAY, D. D. 
7 WM. H. BURNS, D. D. 



5 DUNCAN CAMERON 

6 HUGH R. GRANT 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

DANIEL W. McLEOD, Scotsburn; Hollywood, Calif. 
Relinquished his studies for the ministry on account 
health. Prominent elder on the Pacific Coast for many years. 

ISAAC MURRAY, D.D., Scotsburn; Died 1906. 

He received his theological training in West River Seminary, 
and Princeton Seminary, N. J. In 1849 he was inducted 
pastor of the congregation of Cavendish and New London, 
P. E. I., successor to Dr. Geddie. Here he labored for 27 
years, wielding a large influence not only as a minister, but 
as an educationist and writer. In 1877 he was called to 
Thorburn and Sutherland's River. Here he remained for 
seven years, when he was settled in North Sydney, where he 
remained until his retirement in 1896. Dr. Murray was a 
man of fine attainments, and one of the most faithful in his 
attendance upon Church courts. 

J. ALLISTER MURRAY, Scotsburn; Died 1894. 

In 1857 he was settled at Annapolis, N. S. Three years later 
he accepted a call to Bathurst, N. B. He afterwards removed 
to Ontario where he labored during the remainder of his life. 
His chief work was at London, Ont., where he ministered for 
about twenty years. Mr. Murray was a very effective and 
forcible preacher. He was a brother of the Rev. Isaac Murray. 

A. D. STIRLING, B.A., Scotsburn; Scotsburn, N. S. 

JOHN STIRLING, B.A., Scotsburn; Cavendish, P. E. I. 
Sons of the late Rev. Alexander Stirling. 

JOHN STEWART, Scotsburn; Deceased. 

Student for the ministry. He entered Dal. Univ., 1874 and 
won a scholarship. During his second year in college he died, 
aged twenty-three. He was a young man of fine ability. 

HUGH MclNTOSH, Scotsburn; Deceased. 

ALEX. McKENZiE, Scotsburn; Deceased. 

Mr. Mclntosh and Mr. McKenzie were both students for the 
ministry and promising young men. 

E. D. MILLER, D.D., Rogers Hill. Died 1909. 

Rev. Mr. Miller was a grandson of Rev. Duncan Ross. After 
a successful course of study he was ordained, on Oct. 28, 1872, 
in Shelburne. After he left Shelburne he labored with great 
zeal and energy in Lunenburg and Yarmouth, and was 
eminently successful in both places. After 16 years of work 
in Yarmouth he was called to Chalmer's Church, Halifax. 

95 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

He settled there in 1907. He was an instructive preacher, 
a sympathetic pastor, and deeply interested in all the enter- 
prises of the Church. His ministry spanned thirty-six very 
busy years. 

DUNCAN MILLER, Rogers Hill; Deceased. 

JAMES MILLER, Rogers Hill; Deceased. 

Brothers of the Rev. E. D. Miller, and died while preparing 
for the ministry. 

JOHN W. MATHESON, Rogers Hill; Died in New Hebrides, 
1862. 

ANDERSON ROGERS, D.D., Rogers Hill.; Halifax, N. S. 
Dr. Rogers enjoys the honor of having formed the first 
Christian Endeavor Society in N. S., at Yarmouth, in 1885. 

JAMES FITZPATRICK, B.A., Rogers Hill; New Annan, N.S. 

JOHN R. FITZPATRICK, Rogers Hill; Died 1893. 

Educated at Dalhousie and Presbyterian College, Halifax. 
Settled at Carleton, N. B., but resigned on account of ill 
health. He was brother of the Rev. James Fitzpatrick. 

RODERICK McKAY, B.D., Rogers Hill; Kingston, Ont. 
JOHN A. FRASER, Rogers Hill; Oakland, Calif. 
ROBERT MURRAY, Rogers Hill; O'Leary, P. E. I. 
WILLIAM B. MACCALLUM, Rogers Hill; New Richmond, 

Quebec. 
RODERICK C. Jackson, Rogers Hill; Farmington, New 

Mexico. 

ALEXANDER SUTHERLAND, Plainfield; Died 1897. 

He was born in Lairg, Scotland, 1816. While a child his 
parents came to Nova Scotia. He was sent to Edinburgh to 
complete his education, and at the age of 28, he entered upon 
the ministry. His first charge in Pictou Presbytery, was 40 
miles in extent. In seven years four congregations were 
organized and five new churches. In 1852' he removed to 
Prince Edward Island, where he labored for seven years and 
organized four congregations with two new churches. A 
call was sent to him three times from his former field, the 
third time urging him to return on the ground that four congre- 
gations that hesitated would enter the union of 1860 if he 
should return, which he did, and these congregations entered 

96 




1 J. R. DOBSON 

2 WILLIAM P. GRANT 



MINISTERS OF TODAY 

3 WILLIAM. H. SMITH 

4 ANDKRSON ROGERS, D. D. 

5 F. H. MACINTOSH 



6 G. ERNEST FORBES 

7 J. A. MACGLASHES 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

without a dissenting voice. During the next few years he 
occupied Earltown, West Branch, Scotsburn and Saltsprings, 
gathering the fruits of seed sown during previous years. In 
1874 he went to Canada where he labored until Aug., 1897. 
His ministerial jubilee was celebrated at Ripley, Ontario, 1896. 
Seventeen ministers were present and over one thousand 
people. He was always punctual in fulfilling appointments. 
Many times did he break the road before his horse through 
deep snows, while his coat was frozen about him. A large 
number of the ministers of our church received their first 
impulses and ideal under his ministry. 

WILLIAM SUTHERLAND, Plainfield; Deceased. 

His whole ministry was spent in Ontario, where he died. 

ALFRED FITZPATRICK, B.A., Plainfield; Toronto, Ont. 

Director and Superintendent of Educational Work among the 
lumber camps of Canada. 

LUTHER L. YOUNG, B.A., Millsville; Ham Heung, Korea. 

MINISTERS AND CHURCHES IN THE SALTSPRINGS 
DISTRICT 

The first minister of St. Luke's Church, Saltsprings, was 
the Rev. Donald Mclntosh. He was followed by the 
Rev. Hugh McLeod, from 1833 to 1844. For seven years 
the church was vacant. The other ministers in order of 
induction were: Revs. A. Maclean, D.D., 1851-1857; 
Alexander McKay, 1859-1867; William McMillan 1868- 
1876; James Fitzpatrick 1879-1891; Alexander Roulston 
1892-1898; A. H. Denoon 1899-1908; Wm. F. Burns 
1909-1913. 

In 1845, twenty families went out from St. Luke's 
Church and were organized into a Free Church of Scot- 
land. The following year they began the erection of 
Ebenezer Church. In 1859 Rev. Alex. Sutherland became 
minister of the united congregations of Bethel Church, 
Scotsburn and Ebenezer Church. He was followed by the 
Rev. Alex. Stirling, 1871, Rev. J. A. Cairns 1887, Rev. 

97 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Thos. Gumming, 1889. In 1908 St. Luke's and Ebenezer 
churches were formerly united. The present pastor is 
Rev. A. T. Macdonald. 

From 1845 to 1896 West Branch River John was part 
of the Earltown congregation. In 1896 it was united to 
St. George's Church, River John. It became a separate 
charge in 1910 under the Rev. Thomas Johnstone who 
remained two years. The Rev. C. J. Maclnnes, B.A., 
present pastor was inducted March 3, 1913. 

MINISTERS BORN AND BROUGHT UP IN THIS DISTRICT 

HUGH J. FRASER, B.D., Saltsprings; Summerside, P. E. I. 
NORMAN T. McKAY, Saltsprings; Ready, Ont. 
J. FRANK McLEOD, Saltsprings; Harbor Creek, Pa. 
ALEX. RETTIE, M.A., Saltsprings; Millerton, N. B. 

DANIEL MCGILLIVRAY, Brookland; Deceased. 

He received his early education in Pictou Academy, and took 
his theological course in Queen's University, Kingston. His 
first charge was Brockville, Ont., where he ministered for 14 
years, after which he settled at London, Ont., where he re- 
mained 8 years. He was then called to Lunenburg, N. S., 
and remained 13 years in this charge, when his health broke 
down, and he went to British Columbia. He was forty years 
in the ministry. Mr. McGillivray was a man of genial disposi- 
tion and his memory is cherished in all the congregations where 
he ministered. 

ANDREW GRAY, Brookland; Murray Harbor West, P. E. I. 

ARCHIBALD GUNN, Six Mile Brook. 

Studied at Dalhousie University and graduated from the 
Presbyterian College, Halifax, in 1878. His first charge was 
at Little Bay, Nfd. From there he was called to Windsor, 
N. S. He was for seven years minister at St. Andrew's, N. B. 
and another seven years at Bloomfield, P. E. I. Failing 
health compelled him to retire from the ministry. He re- 
moved to Westville where he made his home for eight years. 
He died on the evening of Easter, 1912. 

98 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

GEORGE GORDON MATHESON, Six Mile Brook. ; Died 1897. 
He attended Pictou Academy in 1887 and studied at Spring- 
field School for Christian Workers. He was ordained to the 
ministry at Fergus Falls, Minn., 1893. For several years he 
was Sunday School Missionary in the Red River Presbytery 
Minn., holding evangelistic services, founding and aiding 
churches and Sunday Schools. He was an earnest Christian 
worker. 

ARTHUR Ross, M. A., Black River; Dawson, Y. T. 
JOHN S. Ross, Black River; Vancouver, B. C. 

JOHN LIVINGSTON, West River Station; Deceased. 

He was pastor of Dundee, Ont., for nine months, when he 
died. The congregation erected a monument to his memory 
with the inscription, "In memory of John Livingston, born 
at West River Station, Apr. 6, 1821, died in Dundee, Aug. 15, 
1860, aged 29 years. He was ordained to the pastoral 
charge in Dundee Nov. 30, 1859. He was a burning and a 
shining light." 

W. A. MACKAY, B.D., West Branch River John; Black- 
water, Ont. 

Earltown, adjoining Pictou County on the Colchester 
side has produced a splendid lot of men in almost every 
profession and line of calling. Among the clergymen are : 
Neil McKay, Adam McKay, Robt. Murray, editor of 
Presbyterian Witness, William Murray, Alexander Ross, 
Donald Sutherland, A. L. McKay, Angus McDonald, 
John D. McKay, missionary to South America, James 
Ross, Geo. A. Sutherland, J. H. Stewart, D. W. McDonald, 
R. J. Douglass and Melville Grant. 

MINISTERS IN THE SCOTCH HILL, HARDWOOD HILL 
AND CARIBOO DISTRICT 

Some of the families belonging to Scotch Hill and Hard- 
wood Hill, attended the Scotsburn Church. Others 
worshipped in Pictou. Cape John was formerly connected 
with St. George's Church, River John. In 1908, Cape 
John and Cariboo was organized into a separate charge. 
Rev. G. R. McKean was the only settled minister. 

99 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

MINISTERS BORN IN THIS DISTRICT 

JOHN MCMILLAN, D.D., Scotch Hill; Halifax, N. S. 
Stated Clerk, Halifax Presbytery. 

GEORGE MCMILLAN, Scotch Hill; Died 1913. 

For 16 years he was the faithful minister at Kentville, N. S. 
Previous to this he ministered to congregations at Malpeque, 
P. E. I., and Harbor Grace, Nfd. He was a brother of the 
Rev. John McMillan, Halifax, and a scholarly and impressive 
preacher. 

A. N. MCQUARRIE, B.A., Scotch Hill,; Died 1909. 

Mr. McQuarrie graduated from Queen's University in 1865, 
and went to Quebec, when for a number of years he was a 
successful professor in Morrin College. From there he went 
to Washington, D. C., where he taught for several years. 
For fifteen years he was a minister in Manitoba. He died at 
Winnipeg Dec. 1, 1909, aged 70 years. He was a diligent 
student, an acceptable preacher, and was held in high esteem 
by those to whom he ministered. 

JOHN CAMPBELL, Scotch Hill; Died 1873. 

Born at Scotch Hill, December, 1809. Studied at Pictou 
Academy, and Theology under Dr. McCulloch, licensed by 
the Presbytery of Pictou, April, 1837. Ordained at St. 
Mary's, 1st November, 1837. Died September 4, 1873. 
Endowed by nature with strong mental gifts, great powers 
of physical endurance, animated with the spirit of his Master, 
he gave himself to his work with energy and zeal, undergoing 
the most arduous labors, in discharging his duties as a min- 
ister over a widely scattered field. 

KENNETH J. GRANT, D.D., Scotch Hill; Vancouver, B. C. 

WM. L. CAMPBELL, Scotch Hill; Yarmouth, N. S. 
Collector of Customs. 

ALEXANDER HAMILTON, Scotch Hill; Old Orchard, Me. 
Pastor, Methodist Church. 

KENNETH McKAY, Hardwood Hill ; Died March 28, 1914. 
In 1872 he was ordained at Richmond, N. B., where he re- 
mained 16 years. In 1888, he became pastor of a mission Church 
at Houlton, Me., thus organizing the first Presbyterian Church 
in the state. He resigned in 1910. Mr. McKay was an able 
and earnest preacher and one of the most genial and lovable 

100 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

of men. He married Miss Margaret Grant, a sister of Rev. 
Dr. K. J. Grant. He is survived by his widow and ''seven 
children. 

ALEXANDER McKAY, Hardwood Hill; Deceased. 

Mr. McKay was the first Nova Scotian who studied for the 
Church of Scotland, and returned to labor among his country- 
men. In 1852 he commenced his ministry in his native parish, 
Rogers Hill, and at the end of 2 years went to Belfast, P. E. I. 
From 1859 to 1867, he labored with great success at Gairloch 
and Saltsprings, N. S. In 1868 he removed to Ontario. He 
died in the 63d year of his age, and the 35th of his ministry. 
He was a devoted minister of the Gospel. 

D. O. MACKAY, B.A., Hardwood Hill; Kingsville, Ohio. 

HECTOR MCQUARRIE, Hardwood Hill; Deceased. 
Settled at Wingham, Ont. 

HECTOR B. McKAY, Cariboo; Died 1912. 

Mr. McKay was for some time a teacher in the Free Church 
Academy, Halifax. In 1855, he was ordained at Chip man, 
where he spent the first 7 years of his ministry. In 1861 he 
was called to Salem Church, River John, where he labored with 
great success. This pastorate lasted 24 years. In 1885 he 
went to Wallace where followed 11 years of great usefulness. 
He retired from the ministry in 1897, and lived thereafter|in 
Halifax, where he died, at the venerable age of 87 years. 

KENNETH MCKENZIE, Cariboo; Died 1904. 

For a year he was in charge of Baddeck, C. B., before his call 
and ordination there in 1857. This was his first and only 
charge. For 35 years he labored here, until his resignation 
and retirement, in 1891. For 5 years during his ministry he 
inspected all the schools of Victoria County. 

GEORGE RODDICK, Cariboo; Died 1910. 

In 1858 Mr. Roddick was inducted into the congregation of 
West River, Pictou, where he was a faithful pastor for 21 
years. Then catching the first strain of the call to the west 
he removed with his family, and a portion of his congregation, 
to Brandon Hills, Manitoba. There he engaged in farming 
and preached as opportunity offered. After an absence of 
25 years he returned to his native County and settled in the 
town of Pictou. 

DANIEL McKAY, Cariboo; Addison, N. Y. 

101 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

MURDOCH, S. MACKAY, B. A., Cariboo; Waweig, N. B. 
ALEXANDER MACAULAY, Cariboo; Vancouver, B. C. 

ARCHIBALD SUTHERLAND, Cariboo; Trenton, N. S. 
Graduate Presbyterian College, Halifax, 1914. 

MINISTERS AND CHURCHES OF RIVER JOHN 

The early settlers of River John were of Swiss origin. 
Having undergone untold persecution in their native land, 
some of them left their native country and came to Hali- 
fax, N. S. From thence they proceeded to Lunenburg, 
where they endured the hardships of the first settlers. 
In 1772 twelve or thirteen families came to Tatamagouche 
and formed the first settlers of that place. In 1785 four 
families: George Patriquin, James Gratto, John Patriquin 
and George Langill, removed to River John, where they 
could obtain crown land. They became the first settlers 
there and had a noble ancestry. The first preaching re- 
ceived by River John's early settlers was by Dr. McGregor. 
Between Pictou and River John, at this time, there was 
an unbroken forest. Not a single dweller was to be found 
along the shore between these two places. The first 
settled minister was Rev. John Mitchell, who began his 
labors in 1808, and gave 35 years of service to this congre- 
gation. The Rev. James Waddell, was settled over the 
people in 1844. He resigned in 1858. Mr. Waddell was 
succeeded by the Rev. H. B. McKay in 1861, who minis- 
tered to this people for 24 years. In 1887 the Rev. G. L. 
Gordon was inducted, and was minister for 21 years. 
The present pastor is Rev. C. D. Mclntosh, settled there 
Dec. 9, 1909. 

Two congregations existed for many years in River John, 
Salem and St. George's congregations. The latter be- 
longed to the Kirk body and was organized by the Rev. Geo. 
M. Grant. Its first pastor was the Rev. Robt. McCunn, 
who was settled in 1863, and spent a long and faithful 
ministry there. Then followed the Rev. J. A. Crawford 

102 



PICTONIANS IN THE PULPIT 

from 1898 to 1906. In 1896 the Rev. R. J. Grant was or- 
dained. His ministry was a short one, and terminated in 
his tragic death at Montreal, in 1898. On the 4th of 
January 1911, the two charges in River John were happily 
united. 

MINISTERS BORN AND BROUGHT UP IN THIS DISTRICT 

DAVID W. JOHNSON, D.D., River John; Truro, N. S. 

Editor of the Wesleyan, organ of the Methodist denomination. 

JOHN G. BIGNEY, River John; Hantsport, N. S. 
Retired Methodist minister. 

WM. H. LANGILLE, River John; Glace Bay, C. B. 
Pastor, Methodist Church. 

ROBERT F. ALLEN, B.A., River John; Annapolis Royal, 

N. S. 

Pastor, Baptist Church. 

CHARLES W. ALLEN, River John; Hamilton, N. Y. 
Student Colgate University. Baptist. 

JAMES A. FORBES, River John; Earltown, N. S. 
PAUL F. LANGILLE, B.A., River John; Fingal, Ont. 

GILBERT W. LANGILLE, B.A., River John; Edgerton, 
Alta. 

GEORGE P. TATTRIE, B.D., River John; Tabusintac, N.B. 
JOHNSON A. HENDERSON, B.A., Toney River; Chicago, 111. 

CHARLES Ross, Toney River; Deceased. 
Pastor, Congregational Church. 

MALCOLM McKAY, River John; Oxford, Me. 
Pastor, Congregational Church. 

A. A. McKAY, B.A., River John. 

Theological student, Presbyterian College, Halifax. 

LINTON DWYER, River John; Pawtucket, R. I. 
Pastor, Episcopal Church. 

103 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

PETER MELVILLE, B.D., Cape John; Died 1912. 

Mr. Melville was pastor in New Brunswick and at Hopewell, 
N. S., for many years, where he left a record of efficient work. 
His scholastic attainments were of a high order. For eight 
years he studied in the University of Glasgow, and won 
valuable prizes in sharp competition with many others. He 
spent the closing years of his ministerial lif e in a parish in the 
North of Scotland. He died in Edinburgh in 1912. 



104 



CHAPTER IV 
PICTONIANS IN THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 

ROBERT Louis Stevenson said there are men and 
classes of men that stand above the common herd 
the soldier, the sailor and the shepherd not infrequently, 
the artist rarely, the clergyman rarelier still, the physician 
almost as a rule. 

On the score of priority in the field, the physicians from 
Pictou may justly enter a claim for precedence over the 
other professions. For foremost among the little band 
of settlers, who, on June 10, 1757, arrived aboard the Brig 
Hope and laid the foundations of the town of Pictou, came 
Dr. John Harris, an agent of the Philadelphia company. 

It is to be taken for granted that Dr. Harris did not 
depend for a living upon his practice, for the Hope brought 
only 35 or 40 passengers, all told. Incidentally, it may 
be remarked that the first white child born in the county 
came into the world the very night of the arrival of the 
brig, when the doctor's own family received the addition 
of a son. He afterward became known as Clerk "Tommy" 
Harris, having the position of Clerk of Peace for many 
years. He died in 1809, and was buried in the Pictou 
cemetery, where a monument stood to his memory, long 
since fallen, on which was the inscription, "The first 
descendant of an Englishman born in Pictou." We may 
add that Dr. Harris' daughter, afterward Mrs. Robert 
Cook, born in 1769, was the first female child born in 
Pictou of English parentage. 

Since that day, a century and a half ago, generation after 
generation of his successors carried on their appointed 
labors, and of many even the names have passed from the 
memory of men. Naturally, the earliest of these were not 
natives of the county. Among pioneer physicians of 

105 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Pictou town and vicinity were Dr. Skinner, Dr. Johnstone, 
Dr. Kirkwood and Dr. Anderson. The physicians who 
first settled in New Glasgow were Dr. Wade, Dr. James 
Skinner, Dr. John Fox, Dr. Alexander Forrest, from 1832- 
1875. Dr. James Donnelly practiced at Albion Mines, 
now Stellarton, for many years. He was a native of the 
North of Ireland. He died in 1866 in the fifty-sixth year 
of his age. 

But with the gradual increase of population, of worldly 
goods and of educational advantages, her young men be- 
gan to take advantage of their opportunity to qualify 
themselves for more ambitious careers. The practice of 
the healing art evidently appealed with force to a con- 
siderable proportion as the partial list appearing upon 
subsequent pages will indicate. It is practically impossible 
to give a complete list of all the native sons and daughters 
of Pictou who, since the first settlement, have given them- 
selves to the medical profession. But of this list, it may 
be said with truth, of all her sons, of none may the county 
more reasonably feel proud than of those whose names 
appear herein. Far and wide are they scattered, living or 
dead, but in whatever place their lot was cast they brought 
credit to their native land. Not a few arose to eminence 
in the profession. The county in which they were born 
today is recognized as a section where the best standards 
of medical knowledge and professional ethics are main- 
tained. 

The list below, with the name, place of birth, alma 
mater and present address, if living, shows 190 physicians 
of whom knowledge is available: 

ANDERSON, ALEXANDER, M.D., Pictou; Harvard Univ., 

1864; Petaluma, Cal. 
ANDERSON, SMITH, M.D., Pictou; Univ. N. Y., 1892; 

Pictou, N. S. 
ANDERSON, WALTER, M.D., Pictou; died in Vallejo, Cal. 

106 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

ARBUCKLE, JAMES, M.D., Merigomish; deceased. 

BAILEY, CAMERON, V., M.D., New Glasgow; McGill Univ. 
1909; Montreal, Can. 

BAILEY, WILLIAM J., M.D., New Glasgow; Univ. Penn., 
1895; Connellsville, Pa. 

BELL, JOHN, M.D., C.M., New Glasgow; McGill Univ., 
1898; New Glasgow, N. S. 

BENVIE, ROBERT MCLEAN, M.D., C.M., Saltsprings; Mc- 
Gill Univ., 1907; Stellarton, N. S. 

BRUCE, JAMES GARPIELD, M.D., C.M., Barney's River; 
Dal. Univ., 1908; Westville, N. S. 

BURNS, SAMUEL WESLEY, M.D., New Glasgow; Bell Med. 
Col., 1864; Shelburne, N. S. 

BURNS, THOMAS M., M.D., New Glasgow; deceased. 

CALDER, ALLISTER, M.D., C.M., Springville; Dal. Univ., 
1909; Glace Bay, C. B. 

CALDER, JAMES SQUAIR, M.D., Springville; Harvard Univ. 
1886; Los Angeles, Cal. 

CAMERON, ALEXANDER, M.D., Glengarry; Glasgow Univ.; 
deceased. 

Dr. Cameron settled at Huntington, Quebec, where he was a 
distinguished and successful practitioner. Brother of Rev. 
John Cameron, D.D., Scotland. 

CAMERON, CLARENCE B., M.D., C.M., New Glasgow; 
Dal. Univ., 1911; Halifax, N. S. 

CAMERON, HAROLD, M.D., C.M., River John; Dal. Univ., 
1901; River John, N. S. 

CAMERON, JOHN THOMAS, M.D., Hopewell. 
Died at River John, N. S. 

CAMERON, MURDOCH, M.D., Saltsprings; Mexico. 

CAMERON, OWEN HALIBURTON, M.D., River John; Bait. 
Med. Col., 1892; Maccan Station, N. S. 

CAMERON, WILLIAM, M.D., Saltsprings; deceased. 

107 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

CAMPBELL, ALBERT E., M.D., St. Paul's; Univ. of Buffalo 
1886; Chicago, 111. 

Health Officer for the Illinois Central Railway system, 
Chicago, 111. 

CAMPBELL, ALEX. R., B.A., M.D., Merigomish ; Dal. 
Univ., 1913; Yarmouth, N. S. 

CAMPBELL, DUNCAN, M.D., West Br. River John; Tulane 
Univ., 1891; West Br. River John, N. S. 

CAMPBELL, ROBERT, M.D., West Branch River John; 
deceased. 

He practiced in River John for a few years, then removed to 
Dartmouth, N. S., where he died. 

CHISHOLM, HUGH D., M.D., C.M., Springville; Dal. 

Univ., 1907; Springville, N. S. 
CHISHOLM, JAMES, M.D., New Glasgow; McGill Univ., 

1900; Everett, Wash. 
COLLIE, JAMES Ross, M.D., Middle River; Harvard 

Univ., 1869; River John, N. S. 
COLLIE, JOHN R. M., M.D., C.M., River John; Dal. 

Univ., 1911. 

Post Graduate course, London, England. 

COPELAND, GEORGE, M.D., Merigomish; deceased. 
CULTON, ALBERT, M.D., Stellarton; Bait. Med. Col., 1897; 

Port Greville, N. S. 
GUMMING, ALLISON, M.D., Stellarton; McGill Univ., 1905; 

Vancouver, B. C. 
DELANEY-B ARBOUR, ISABEL, M.D., Churchville; Women's 

Med. Col., N. Y; New York City. 
DICKSON, CHARLES H., M.D., C.M., Pictou; Dal. Univ., 

1901 ; Springfield, N. S. 

DICKSON, MINAR S., M.D., Pictou; Univ., N.Y., 1890; 
Dartmouth, N. S. 

DOULL, JAMES A., B.A., M.D., New Glasgow. 
Graduate, Dal. Medical Univ., 1914. 

108 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

DUFF, DUNCAN, M.D., Churchville. 
Died in Detroit, Mich. 

DUNBAR, WILLAIM R., M.D., C.M., Abercrombie ; McGill 

Univ., 1897; Truro, N. S. 
DUNN, GEORGE A., Lyon's Brook; Dal. Col., 1906; Pic- 

tou, N. S. 

DUNN, JAMES B., M.D., Merigomish; Pittsburgh, Pa. 
ELLIOTT, ALFRED, M.D., River John; Bait. Col. Phys. & 

Surg.; Bridgewater, Conn. 

Medical director of the State Farm Hospital. 

FALCONER, A. F., M.D., Hopewell. 
Died in Sherbrooke, N. S. 

FERGUSON, JOHN A., M. D., Cariboo; L. I. Col. Hosp; 

N. Y.; Brooklyn, N.Y. 
FERGUSON, WILLIAM, M.D., Pictou; McGill Univ., 1894; 

New York City, N.Y. 
FORBES, ALBERT E., M.D., C.M., Durham; Dal. Univ., 

1900; Upper Stewiacke, N. S. 

FORBES, ARTHUR E. G., M.D., C.M., Little Harbor; Mc- 
Gill Univ., 1906; Lunenburg, N. S. 
FRASER, ALEXANDER, M.D., C.M., West River; Dal. 

Univ., 1897; New York City. 
FRASER, HUGH D., M.D., Bridgeville; Jefferson Med. 

Col.; Philadelphia, Pa. 
FRASER, JAMES, M.D., New Glasgow; Edinburgh Univ.; 

deceased. 

FRASER, JOHN B., M.D., New Glasgow; deceased. 
FRASER, JOHN F., M.D., West River; Harvard Univ., 

1892; New York City. 

fe.-jji Brother of Dr. Alexander Fraser. 
FRASER, J. W., M.D., Pictou; deceased. 

, Practiced in Prince Edward Island, brother of Rev. F. W. 

&[ Fraser. 
FRASER, WILLIAM F., M.D., Westville; L. I. Med. Col., 

1897; Lynn, Mass. 

109 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

FRASER, WILLIAM, M.D., F.R.C.S., New Glasgow; de- 
ceased. 

Was born at Island, East River, studied in Glasgow University, 
practiced in New Glasgow twenty-seven years, where he died 
June 20, 1900. Son James Fraser, Downie; was married to 
Mary M., daughter of late Basil Bell, New Glasgow. 

FULLERTON, THOMAS, M.D., Lyon's Brook; Harvard 
Univ.; deceased. 

GRAHAM, JOHN, M.D., New Glasgow; deceased. 
GRAHAM, JUDSON V., New Glasgow; Dal. Univ., 1914; 
medical student. 

GRANT, DANIEL, M.D., Caribou; McGill Univ., 1896; 
Portland, Ore. 

GRANT, JOHN, M.D., Little Harbor; deceased. 

GRANT, JOHN P., M.D., C.M., Linacy; McGill Univ., 

1895; New York City. 

GRANT, NORMAN McKAY, M.D., C.M., Stellarton; Queen's 
Univ., 1889; New Zealand. 

Brother of Rev. Hugh R. Grant and the Grant Bros. Druggists, 
New Glasgow. 

GRANT, WILLIAM R., M.D., Springville; deceased. 

Was born in 1811 and died in Philadelphia in 1852, in the forty- 
first year of his age. Early destined for the church by his 
parents, he entered Pictou Academy where he received his 
early education. While there, he relinquished the study of 
Theology and in 1834 entered the office of Dr. Alexander Mc- 
Donald, Antigonish, as a medical student. 

Two years later he went to Philadelphia, which was to be 
his home and the scene of his labors and distinctions. Grad- 
uating from Jefferson Medical College in 1839, he was im- 
mediately appointed demonstrator of Anatomy in his Alma 
Mater. In 1843, he was appointed Professor of Anatomy in 
the Pennsylvania Medical College a position which he held 
to the close of his life and which he filled in an eminent degree. 

Dr. Grant was a distinguished physician and surgeon, as 
well as an excellent instructor. His many qualities of mind 
and heart endeared him to all, and few men were better fitted 
by nature and education for his work. 

110 




Prof WILLIAM R. GRANT, M. D. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

In 1840, he was ordained a ruling elder in one of the leading 
churches in Philadelphia, and in the same year, he married 
into the well-known family of John McAllister of the same 
city. He left a wife and three children. It was in discharge 
of a professional duty that his last illness was contracted. He 
died like a faithful sentinel of humanity, at his post with his 
arms on his back. 

GRANT, WILLIAM R., B.A., Springville; Dal. Col.; de- 
ceased. 

Nephew and namesake of Prof. W. R. Grant. Died in 1881, 
in the first year of his Medical course. 

GREEN, FRED W., M.D., C.M., Pictou; McGill Univ., 
1903; Glace Bay, C. B. 

GORDON, DAVID, Pictou; Edinburgh Univ. ; deceased. 
HATTIE, WILLIAM H., M.D., C.M., Pictou; McGill Univ., 
1891. 

Provincial Health Officer for Province, Halifax, N. S. 

HENDERSON, JOHN, M.D., Mt. Thorn; Harvard Univ.; 

deceased. 
HERDMAN, WILLIAM H., M.D., C.M., L.M., Stellarton; 

Dal. Univ., 1911; Bass River, N. S. 

JOHNSTONS, GEORGE M., M.D., Pictou; London Univ.; 
deceased. 

KEAY, ARNOLD, M.D., C.M., New Glasgow; Royal Vic- 
toria Hosp.; Montreal, Que. 

KEAY, THOMAS, M.D., C.M., New Glasgow; McGill 
Univ., 1907; New Glasgow, N. S. 

KEITH, SILVANUS, M.D., C.M., Stellarton; Queen's Col., 
1886; New Glasgow, N. S. 

KENNEDY, EVAN, M.D., Bridgeville; Boston Univ., 1876; 
New Glasgow, N. S. 

KIRKWOOD, HENRY, M.D., Pictou; Jefferson Med. Col. 

Died in 1859, son of late Dr. Kirkwood, Pictou. At his 
father's death took his practice. 

Ill 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

LINDSAY, ANDREW W. H., B.A., M.D., C.M., Pictou; Dal. 
Univ., 1875, and Univ. of Edinburgh, 1877; Halifax, 

N. S. 

In 1866 he won the first professors' scholarship offered by Dal- 
housie College. He is secretary and registrar Provincial 
Medical Board of Nova Scotia. Dr. Murdoch A. Lindsay, 
Professor of Pathology Dal. Univ., and Dr. W. S. Lindsay, 
Halifax, are his nephews. Their father, Murdoch Mackenzie 
Lindsay, was a native of Pictou. 

LIPPINCOTT, HENRY, M.D., New Glasgow; Jefferson Med. 
Col., 1863; died in 1908. 

Dr. Lippincott was born in 1839, served as assistant surgeon 
in civil war, saw distinguished service throughout the country, 
notably in the Indian campaigns with General Custer. Di- 
rected the medical department of the Philippine expedition 
during the Spanish- American war under General Merritt, later 
with General Otis. Returned to America broken in health, 
but in 1901 was appointed chief surgeon, Department of the 
East, at Governor's Island, N. Y., the most important medical 
appointment in the United States army after the post of 
surgeon-general. Was retired when 64. Married Mary Agnes 
McClenthen, who survives him with two sons, Dr. Walter M. 
Lippincott and Capt. Aubrey Lippincott, U. S. A. He was a 
brother of Dr. J. Aubrey Lippincott. Dr. Henry Lippincott 
was a man of unusually strong character, highest principles 
and his whole life aptly illustrated by his family motto, secun- 
dis dubiiaque fortis. 

LIPPINCOTT, J. AUBREY, B.A., M.D., New Glasgow; Dal. 
Col., 1867; Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dr. J. Aubrey Lippincott was born in 1847. After Dalhousie 
College, he graduated from the Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, in 1873. Settled in Pittsburgh in 1877, becom- 
ing an ear and eye specialist. Has written extensively for 
medical journals, was one of the authors of The American Text 
Book of Diseases of the Ear and Eye, and was renowned for 
his researches on physiological optics and improvement in the 
operation for cataract. 

LOVE, ANDREW, M.D., C.M., New Glasgow; McGill Univ. 
1891; Sydney Mines, C. B. 

112 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MAXWELL-FULTON, ANNIE, M.D., C.M., Mount Thorn; 
deceased. 

Dr. Fulton- Maxwell was the wife of Elder Samuel Fulton, 
Stewiacke. She died in Lake City, Minn., in 1881, 34 years 
old. Dr. Archibald Maxwell was a brother. 

MAXWELL, ARCHIBALD, M.D., Mt. Thorn. 

Died at Bear River, N. S., in May 23, 1882, of Apoplexy. 

MILLER, CHARLES J., M.D., Merigomish; Harvard Univ., 

1876; New Glasgow, N. S. 
MILLER, CLARENCE, M.D., C.M., Stellarton; McGill 

Univ., 1905; Stellarton, N. S. 
MITCHELL, FREDERICK W., M.D., C.M., Merigomish; 

Bait. Med. Col., 1898; Houlton, Me. 

MITCHELL, WILLIAM, M.D., Merigomish; deceased. 

Graduated Jefferson Medical College 1859, practiced Medicine 
in New Glasgow from 1860 until his death in Dec. 1896. 

MORTON, JOSEPH S., B.A., M.D., Fraser's Mountain; de- 
ceased. 

He died in Shelburne, N. S., in the fifty-eighth year of his age. 
To his church he was ever loyal, and, with great interest rilled 
the office of treasurer for 27 years. He was an ardent educa- 
tionalist. His first work for Shelburne was as Principal of 
the Academy for several years, in which position he was very 
successful; and during the 30 years of medical practice, he 
never lost his interest in education. He was the moving 
spirit in securing the erection of the fine Academy Building 
which is a splendid monument to Dr. Morton's memory. He 
was a brother of late Rev. Dr. Morton, Trinidad. Died 
February 25, 1911 from illness contracted while attending to 
his professional duties, a signal instance of self-sacrifice for 
the good of others. 

MUNRO, CHARLES H., M.D., West River. 

Dr. Munro died in 1909, after practicing his profession at 
West River 40 years. 

MUNRO, CRANSWICK B., M.D. C.M., River John; Dal. 

Univ., 1895; Boston, Mass. 
MUNRO, HENRY W., M.D., River John; Bait. Col. Phys. 

& Surg. ; Quincy, Mass. 

113 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

MUNRO, HUGH R., M.D., West River. 

Dr. Munro died in 1910, in the Aberdeen Hospital, New Glas- 
gow, after an active practice of more than 20 years in Stellar- 
ton, N. S. 

MUNRO, JAMES G., M.D., C.M., River John; Dal. Univ., 
1899; Winnipeg, Man. 

MUNRO, KENNEDY, M.D., West River; deceased. 

Dr. Kennedy Munro died in 1898, after practicing medicine 
in Kansas, U. S. A., and Millsville, N. S. He and two brothers 
Charles H., and Hugh R., were sons of William Munro, West 
River. 

MURRAY, ALEXANDER, M.D., West Br. River John; 

Chicago Med. Col., 1892; Deer Island, N. B. 
MURRAY, ANGUS J., M.D. 

Was born in Logansville, October 23, 1855 and was the eldest 
son of John Murray. He received his education in Pictou 
Academy and the Provincial Normal School and taught school 
several years in various parts of Nova Scotia. He graduated 
from Halifax Medical College, 1884. He was in poor health 
for years, suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. He died at 
Fredericton Junction, where he practiced for many years, April, 
1913. 

MURRAY, DANIEL, M.D., Plainfield; McGill Univ., 1886; 

Campbellton, N. B. 
MURRAY, DANIEL, M.D., C.M., Meadowville; Dal. Univ., 

1903; Tatamagouche, N. S. 
MURRAY, DUNCAN A., M.D., C.M., Meadowville; McGill 

Univ., 1889; River John, N.S. 
MURRAY, DUNCAN, M.D., C.M., Meadowville; Dal. Univ., 

1896; Pictou, N. S. 

MURRAY, GEORGE, M.D., Barney's River; Penn. Med. Col. 
1850; deceased. 

Dr. George Murray was born in 1825. His grandfather, Wal- 
ter Murray, came out from Sutherlandshire to Pictou in the 
ship, Hector, in 1773. He was educated at Pictou Academy, 
graduated from Penn. Medical College 1850. Practiced for 
four years in his native place, and in 1854 settled in New Glas- 
gow. While a general practitioner he was noted for his skill 

114 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

in surgery, having performed successfully a large number of 
operations for cataracts, etc. In 1854 he married Mary, 
daughter of Robert P. Patterson. Died February 12, 1888. 
His son Howard Murray is Professor of Classics in Dalhousie 
University. 

MURRAY, HARVEY V., M.D., Scotsburn; New York Univ.; 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

MURRAY, JAMES A., M.D., C.M., Pictou; Dal. Univ., 
1905; Sydney, C. B. 

MURRAY, JOSEPH HOWE, M.D., Barney's River; deceased. 
He was educated at Dalhousie College and graduated at 
University of New York. Died in Boston, 1893, aged 43 
years. 

MACDONALD, JOHN J., B.A., M.D., Pine Tree; Dal. Univ., 
1910; New Glasgow, N. S. 

MACDONALD, MICHAEL R., M.D., Lismore; Georget. 
Univ., 1895; Lourdes, N. S. 

MACDONALD, WILLIAM FORBES, M.D., C.M., Westville; 
McGill Univ., 1900; Vancouver, B. C. 

MACDONALD, ROBERT J., B.A., M.D., Hopewell; Univ. 

N. Y., 1894; Wilkie, Sask. 
MACDONALD, RONALD ST. JOHN, M.D., C.M., Bailey's 

Brook; McGill Univ., 1903; Montreal. 

Lecturer on hygiene at McGill University, Montreal. 

MACDONALD, PETER, M.D., C.M., L.C.P., Pictou; Hamil- 
ton, Ont. 

Parents from Inverness, Scot., settled in Pictou Co., 1830, and 
moved to Huron Co., Ont., 1846; born in Pictou 1835; educa- 
ted in Trinity Univ., Toronto, graduating 1872; married Miss 
Margaret Ross in 1865; succssfully practiced his profession 
at Wigham, Ont. Entered politics 1887; appointed Post- 
master London, Ont., 1909. His daughter, Annie C., is 
National Sec'y for Y. W. C. A., Japan. A man of broad views 
and high personal character. 

MCDONALD, CLIFFORD, M.D., Pictou; Cerra Del Pasco, 
South America. 

115 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

MCDONALD, DANIEL R., M.D., C.M., Saltsprings; Dal. 

Univ., 1905; Athabasca Landing, Alta. 
MCDONALD, HENRY K., M.D., C.M., Lyon's Brook; Mc- 

Gill Univ., 1896; Halifax, N. S. 
MCDONALD, JOHN C., M.D., C.M., Pictou; Dal. Univ., 

1895; Edmonton, Alta. 
MCDOUGALL, JOHN G., M.D., C.M., Blue Mountain; Mc- 

Gill Univ., 1897; Amherst, N. S. 

MCGILLIVRAY, ALEXANDER D., M.C., Springville; de- 
ceased. 

Graduating in medicine he took up his residence in Sydney, 
C. B., where for 40 years, he was one of its best known and 
most progressive citizens. He was one of the first elders 
elected by the Falmouth Street congregation. He died in 
1907 in the 66th year of his age. 

MCGILLIVRAY, DONALD, M.D., McLennan's Brook; de- 
ceased. 

Son of Rev. Dr. McGillivray, born 1842, educated Edinburgh 
Univ., Began practice in New Glasgow in 1864. Died at 
Thorburn, May 1, 1890. 

MCGREGOR, ANDREW, M.D., McLennan's Brook; deceased. 
Dr. McGregor died in 1889, aged 31 years. Son Dan Mc- 
Gregor, McLellan's Brook, practiced medicine in Providence, 
R. I., for a few years. 

MclNTOSH, CYRUS R., B.Sc., M.D., Sunny Brae; Mani- 
toba, Med. Col., 1908; Lauder, Man. 

MclNTOSH, DANIEL, M.D., Springville; Harvard Univ., 
1871, L.R.C.P., Edinburgh, 1873; Pugwash, N. S. 

MclNTOSH, DANIEL, M.D., Hopewell; Harvard Univ.; 
Died in Seattle in 1888. 

MclNTOSH, JOHN, M.D., Springville; Jefferson Med. Col. 
Phila., 1866. 

He died at Whycocomagh, C. B., November, 1882, in the 
66th year of his age, where he practiced for many years. For 
10 years he was an elder in the Presbyterian church. He 
carried much of the spirit of his Master into his visits among 
the sick and the poor. 

116 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MclNTOSH, JAMES W. f M.D., C.M., Sunny Brae; Jefferson 
Med., Col., Phila.; died in 1907. 

Dr. Mclntosh was a demonstrator in surgery at the college 
when he died. He was in his thirty-seventh year. 

MACKAY, HECTOR H., M.D., C.M., Plainfield; McGill 

Univ., 1890; New Glasgow. 

MACKAY, J. MELVILLE, M.D., River John; McGill Univ., 
1886; died in Spring Hill, N. S. 

Dr. MacKay was the son of Rev. H. B. MacKay, River John, 
and achieved success as a medical practitioner. He died in 
1897 at the early age of 36 years. 

MAcKAY-McKENzm KATHERiNE JOANNA, Plainfield; 

Dal. Univ., 1895; Coquitlam, B. C. 
MACKAY, WILLIAM A., M.D., New Glasgow; Bellevue 

Hosp. Med. Col., 1905; Thorburn, N. S. 
McKAY, ALEXANDER, M.D., West River; deceased. 

McKAY, ALEXANDER P., M.D., Barney's River; Jefferson 

Med. Col., Phila., 1881; Catalina, Nfd. 
McKAY, DANIEL A., M.D., C.M., Welsford; Dal. Univ., 

1908; Hamiota, Man. 
McKAY, DANIEL McG., M.D., Lome; Jefferson Med. 

Col., 1896; Vancouver. B.C. 
McKAY, GEORGE F., Pictou; N. Y. Med. Univ., 1894; 

North Sydney, C. B. 
MCKAY-BUCHANAN, MARY B., B.A., M.D., Riverton; 

Ladies' Med. Col., Toronto; Amkhut, Central India. 
McKAY, WILLIAM, M.D., C.M., Scotsburn; Dal. Univ., 

1903; Vonda, Sask. 
MACKENZIE, DAVID H., Scotsburn; Univ., N.Y., 1889; 

Millbrook, N. Y. 
MACKENZIE, LUTHER B., M. D., West River; Bellevue 

Med. Hosp. Col., 1904; New York City. 

MACKENZIE, KENNETH A., M.D., C.M., Cariboo; Dal. 
Univ., 1903; Halifax, N. S. 

117 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

MACKENZIE, THOMAS H., M.D., Churchville; Harvard 
Univ., 1871; Trenton, N. J. 

MACKENZIE, WILLIAM P., M.D., Churchville; Univ., 

Mich., 1870; Chester, 111. 
MACKENZIE, JOHN J., M.D., C.M., Pictou; Dal. Univ., 

1902; Pictou. 

MACKENZIE, JEMIMA, M.D., C.M., Cariboo; Dal. Univ., 

1904; Cawnpore, India. 
MACKENZIE-SMITH, MARY, M.D., C.M., Cariboo; Dal. 

Univ., 1905; Verschoyle, Ont. 

McKENziE, GEORGE I., M.D., Durham. 

Graduated from Jefferson Medical College 1866, practiced in 
Maitland, N. S., from 1866-1871, removed to Pictou in 1871 
where he remained until his death in 1905. He was prominent 
in church and state, as well as skillful in his profession. His 
son J. J. McKenzie takes his practice. A daughter is teacher 
in Trinidad mission schools. 

MCKENZIE, J. W., M.D., River John; Med. Col., Ind., 

1900; Indianapolis, Ind. 
MACKINNON, ALBERT H., M.D., C.M., Pictou Landing; 

Dal., Univ., 1913; Upper Musquodoboit, N. S. 
McKiNNON, JOHN, M.D., Bailey's Brook; deceased. 

MACLEAN, DUNCAN, M.D., Springville; Harvard Uni- 
versity, 1860. 

He practiced medicine in Shubenacadie, N. S., for nearly forty 
years. He was a devoted and self-sacrificing physician and 
well-known as a public spirited citizen. He married Margaret, 
daughter of Richard McHeffey. The eldest son, Dr. Edwin 
D. Maclean is located at Truro, N. S. Brother of Rev. James 
Maclean, D.D. 

McL/BAN, DAVID, M.D., Green Hill; deceased. 
MACLEAN, EMMELINE, M.D., Green Hill; New York City. 
McL/BAN, JOHN, M.D., Scotsburn; Spokane, Wash. 
McLEAN, JOHN J., M.D., Saltsprings; Halifax Med Col., 
1860; Jersey City, N. J. 

118 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MACLELLAN, EDWARD K., M.D., C.M., Pictou; Dal. 
Univ., 1909; Halifax. 

Proprietor, Halifax Hospital for Women. Son W. E. Maclel- 
lan, Post Office Inspector, Halifax. 

MACLELLAN, ROBERT G., M.D., C.M., Pictou; Dal. 
Univ., 1909; Lunenburg, N. S. 
Son Principal Maclellan, Pictou. 

McLEOD, DAVID, M.D., Scotsbum. 

Practiced medicine in Chicago and died there. 

McLEOD, WILLIAM A., M.D., C.M., Lansdowne; Dal. 

Univ., 1907; Hopewell, N. S. 
MCMILLAN, FINLAY, M.D., C.M., Churchville; Dal. Univ. 

1872; Sheet Harbor, N. S. 

MCMILLAN, PETER H., M.D., Churchville; deceased. 
Practiced at Ava, 111. 

NICHOL, ANGUS, M.D., Pictou; Hamburg, Chit. 

NORRIE, WILLIAM, M.D., Lime Rock. 

Died at River John, aged 60. The deceased was well and 
favourably known. Skill in his profession, his sympathy and 
benevolence endeared him to many. 

OLDING-HEBB, CLARA MARY, M.D., C.M., Pine Tree; 
Dal. Univ., 1896; St. John, N. B. 

OLIVER, C. W., Westville. 

Student McGill Univ.; died in 1904. 

PARK, JOHN E., M.D., Thorburn; McGill Univ., 1910; 
New Glasgow, N. S. 

PATTON, JOHN W. T., M.D., C.M., Barney's River; Mc- 
Gill Univ., 1900; Truro, N. S. 

PATERSON, EDWARD MORTIMER, M.D., Barney's River; 
Harvard Univ., 1871; Oakland, Cal. 

Dr. Paterson was a professor of physiology in the Medical 
College at San Francisco. His son, Dr. Frank H., is prac- 
ticing in San Francisco. 

PERRIN, ALBERT M., M.D., River John; Univ. N. Y., 
1873; Yarmouth, N. S. 

119 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

PRIMROSE, ALEXANDER, M.D., M.B., C.M., Pictou; 
Univ. Edinburgh, Scotland; 1886; Toronto. 

Son of late Howard Primrose, Pictou, and Oliva, daughter of 
late Hon. Alexander Campbell, Tatamagouche, N. S., studied 
for his profession in Edinburgh University and Middlesex 
Hospital, London. Appointed professor of Anatomy, Toronto 
Medical College, 1895, resigned in 1907, now devotes himself 
exclusively to surgery. Author, "The Anatomy of the Orang- 
Outang", "The American Practice of Surgery". 

PRIMROSE, ALEXANDER J., M.D., Pictou; Col. Phys. & 
Surg., N. Y., 1885; New York City. 

PROUDFOOT, JAMES A., M.D., C.M., Saltsprings; Dal. 
Univ., 1905; Inverness, C. B. 

ROBERTSON, THOMAS, M.D., Churchville; Wash. Univ., 
St. Louis, 1887; Churchville, 111. 

Ross, ALBERT, M.D., Blue Mountain. 
Graduated McGill Univ., 1914. 

Ross, HUGH, M.D., C.M., Telford; McGill Univ., 1894; 
Hazel Hill, N. S. 

Ross, JAMES D., M.D., Pictou; Harvard Univ., 1861; 
Edinburgh Univ., 1865. 

Only son of late Principal Ross, was in active medical practice 
forty-seven years. Died March 31, 1911, aged 71 years. 

ROY, JOHN J., M.D., C.M., Westville; McGill Univ., 1897; 
Sydney, C. B. 

RUDOLPH, ROBERT DAWSON, M.D., F.R.G.S., Pictou; 
Edinburgh and London Univ. ; Toronto. 

Son William N., and Catherine (Dawson) Rudolf, born in 
Pictou, 1865, practiced 5 years in Bengal, India, associate 
professor of Medicine, Toronto, Univ. Author numerous 
scientific articles. 

SCOTT, WILLIAM J., M.D., New Glasgow; McGill Univ.; 
Montreal. 

Dr. Scott for five years was a medical missionary to China. 
Son of Rev. E. Scott D.D., Montreal. 

120 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

SMITH, JOHN P., M.D., Merigomish; Harvard Univ., 1869; 
deceased. 

Dr. Smith was born in 1838, practiced for twenty years at 
Lower Barney's River and for seven years in New Glasgow. 
He then removed to Green's Pond, Nfd., where he remained 
another seven years. He died at Tilt-Cove Nfd., Sept. 2, 
1904, aged 66 years. 

SMITH, CECIL V., M.D., Lower Barney's River; Bait. 

Med. Col., 1906; Twillingate, Nfd. 

SMITH, LEONARD H., M.D., Lower Barney's River; Bait. 
Med. Col.; deceased. 

Dr. Smith died at Hearts Content, Nfd., 1899, where he prac- 
ticed for three years. 

SMITH, V. OWEN, M.D., Lower Barney's River; Bait. Med. 
Col., 1895; Fogo, Nfd. 

Drs. Leonard H., Cecil V., and Owen V. Smith were sons of 
late Dr. John P. Smith. 

SMITH, HENRY THOMAS, M.D., Merigomish; McGill 

Univ., 1891; North Sydney, C. B. 
SMITH, JAMES J., M.D., Barney's River; Bait. Univ., 

1897; Norris Arm, Nfd. 
SMITH, SANDY SIMON, M.D ..Merigomish; Bait. Med. Col., 

1890; Brookville, Nfd. 
STRAMBERG, CHARLES W., M.D., C.M., River John; Dal. 

Univ., 1910; Trenton, N. S. 
SUTHERLAND, GEORGE R., M.D., C.M., Hudson; McGill 

Univ., 1897; Leduc, Alta. 
SUTHERLAND, JAMES A., M.D., C.M., River John; McGill 

Univ., 1896; Vancouver, B. C. 
SUTHERLAND, MURDO, M.D., Saltsprings ; Harvard Univ., 

1871; Westville, N. S. 

SUTHERLAND, ROBERT H., M.D., C.M., River John; Mc- 
Gill Univ., 1907; Spring Hill, N. S. 
SUTHERLAND, NEIL, M.D., Saltsprings, Harvard Univ., 

1868; Strathcona, Alta. 

121 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

SUTHERLAND, RODERICK, M.D., River John; deceased. 
THOMSON, CHARLES A., M.D., Durham; Univ. Berlin and 
Chicago, 1914; Chicage, 111. 

Son late Rev. Jas. Thomson, Durham. 

THOMPSON, GEORGE H., M.D., C.M., New Glasgow; Mc- 

Gill Univ., 1899; North Adams, Mass. 
WILLIAMSON, DANIEL W., M.D., C.M., West Br. River 

John; Dal. Univ., 1896; Yarmouth, N. S. 
YOUNG, A. MCGILLIVRAY, M.D., Millsville; McGill Univ., 

1906; Winnipeg, Man. 
YOUNG, ROBERT M., M.D., C.M., Millsville; Queen's 

Univ., 1901; Millsville, N. S. 

A few natives of the county entered upon practice of 
Dentistry. A partial list is: Wm. F. Burns, D.D.S., 
Sydney, C. B; Harry G. Dunbar, D.D.S., New Glasgow, 
N. S.; John C. Grant, D.D.S., Glace Bay, C. B.; M. K. 
Langille, D.D.S., Truro, N. S.; David P. Meikle, Henry 
Matheson, deceased. 



122 



CHAPTER V 
THE BENCH AND THE BAR 

THE first practicing lawyer in the County, as far as is 
known, was Nicholas Purdue Olding. For many 
years he was not only the father but the grandfather of 
the Bar. Born in England, 1751; educated at Oxford; his 
friends intended him for the Church, but on completing his 
course, he turned his attention to law. Having finished 
his law course, he came to America at the time of the 
American Revolution and took arms in defence of the 
mother country. At the close of the war, he came to 
Halifax with his wife and two children. 

In 1784 he was admitted to the Bar, and entered upon 
the practice of his profession with great promise. But he 
had received a wound in the head, which rendered him 
unfit for the excitement of the Bar and the social habits 
of the time. About 1797 he received a grant of land at 
Merigomish from Governor Wentworth. Soon afterwards 
he moved there and settled on Point Betty Island, where 
he lived the remainder of his life. 

He did not regularly practice as a barrister, but did 
considerable law business, writing deeds and issuing legal 
documents. He generally attended the court at Pictou 
until near the close of his life. Though brought up in the 
Church of England, he joined the Presbyterian Church, 
under Dr. McGregor's ministry. His wife died in 1841 
in the 87th year of her age, and he in 1845, in his ninety- 
fifth year. They had lived together for the long period of 
sixty-four years. Mr. Olding was well educated, had a high 
sense of honor, and maintained throughout his life a repu- 
tation for integrity and justice. 

Among the early members of the legal profession in the 
county were: Robert Hatton, who came from Ireland in 

123 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

1813; Thomas Dickson, who was a Colchester man; 
Henry Blackadar of Halifax, who represented the district 
in the legislature for nearly a dozen years; Martin I. Wil- 
kins, born at Windsor, practiced law in Pictou, and after- 
wards became Prothonotary of Supreme Court in Halifax, 
which office he held up to time of his death. He was a 
Barrister of marked ability, but was rather eccentric in 
his manner. Daniel Dickson, born at Truro, N. S., died 
December 27, 1878, was father of Wm. A. Dickson of 
Pictou. A. C. McDonald the second son of George Mc- 
Donald was born at the West River in 1821. Having 
been admitted to the Bar, he entered into partnership 
with Daniel Dickson for the practice of law. In 1853 he 
married Sarah Brown De Wolfe of Pugwash. He died in 
1869, in the forty-eighth year of his age. He was a man 
of good judgment; and fair dealing characterized his legal 
career. 

John MacKinlay, son of Rev. John MacKinlay at one 
time pastor of Prince St. Church, practiced law in Pictou 
town for many years and died there December 1888. 
James Fogo, was born in Glasgow, came to Pictou when 
a lad, was educated at Pictou Academy, studied law in the 
office of Jotham Blanchard, was admitted to the bar in 
1837, became Judge of Probate 1850. He died in 1897. 
Edward Roach was a native of Cumberland County and 
practiced in New Glasgow. David Matheson was born at 
West River and died September 1886. For the last 
twenty-five years of his life he was Prothonotary and Clerk 
to County Court at Pictou. 

One of the best known of the earlier members of the 
bar, was Jotham Blanchard. He was, by birth, a New 
Englander, but by education and residence a Pictonian. 
Inasmuch as his whole public life was spent in Pictou, the 
County can fairly claim him as one of her sons. Mr. 
Blanchard was born at Peterboro, N. H., in 1800. He was 
the eldest son of Jonathan Blanchard. When he was 

124 






HON. JOHN D. McLEOD 
HON. GEORGE G. PATTERSON 



THE BENCH AND THE BAR 

3 HON. SIMON H. HOLMES 

4 HON. JAMES MCDONALD 
7 JOTHAM BLANCHARD 



5 HON. JAMES G. FORBES 

6 HON. ANGUS MCGILI.IVRAY 



THE BENCH AND THE BAR 

fifteen months old, his parents removed with him to Truro. 
A few years later the family removed to West River, 
Pictou, where his father bought George McConnelTs farm 
and built what was known as the Ten Mile House. 

Afterwards they removed to Pictou Town, where 
Jotham studied at Pictou Academy, being one of the first 
class of students in that institution. He studied law in 
the office of Thomas Dickson, and was admitted to the 
Bar in 1821. He soon became one of the most eminent 
practitioners in Eastern Nova Scotia. His time and ener- 
gies were largely devoted to fearless advocacy of popular 
rights and to support of Pictou Academy and higher 
education. 

Mr. Blanchard was an able lawyer, a keen debater, a 
forceful writer; and he used his powers unstintedly for the 
best interests of the country. He ended his brilliant career 
in 1840 in the fortieth year of his age and it is not to 
the credit of his fellow countrymen, that his grave lies 
unmarked in the Old Cemetery in Pictou. 

Hon. Hiram Blanchard was born in Pictou, in 1820, 
educated at Pictou Academy, and called to the bar of 
Nova Scotia in 1843, when only twenty-three years of age. 
He practiced law for some years in Halifax. He repre- 
sented the County of Inverness in the Legislature for 
several years, and was for a short time Premier of the 
Province. He died in 1874. 

Sir Charles Townsend, Chief Justice of Nova Scotia 
says: "Hiram Blanchard was at one time regarded as 
one of the best and most successful lawyers in the Province. 
While he could not be called a well-read and diligent stu- 
dent of the law, yet he possessed in an eminent degree, the 
faculty of quickly absorbing all the facts, and the law bear- 
ing thereon in the case in hand." He was a brother of 
Jotham Blanchard. 

A well-known name of later years, was that of Hon. 
James McDonald, who was born at Bridgeville, East River, 

125 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

July 1, 1828. He was familiarly known and honored by 
his generation in Pictou County as "Jim" McDonald. 
His family was amongthe first Scottish Highlanders 
who came to Nova Scotia and settled on the East River. 
His grandfather, James Macdonald, known as "The Dea- 
con," was one of the founders of the Anti-Burgher Church, 
and, like all the family was in politics a strong Radical. 
His father settled in New Glasgow where his son was 
educated. Some of the older people still remember him as 
the bright, active lad, who without any advantages, got 
himself an education and fought his way up to the high 
position of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Nova 
Scotia. He studied law in the office of the well-known Hon. 
Martin I. Wilkins and was admitted to the Bar when only 
twenty-three years of age. 

He practiced law first in Pictou for twelve years, and in 
1863 removed to Halifax where he was conspicuous among 
the leaders of the Bar. In 1878 he was made Minister of 
Justice in the Sir John Macdonald's Government. He was 
appointed Chief Justice of Nova Scotia in 1881; retiring 
on a pension in 1904, he was presented with a handsome 
piece of silver by the bar of Nova Scotia as a testimonial. 
He declined the honor of Knighthood, and passed the 
closing days of his life at "Blink Bonnie" on the Northwest 
Arm, where he died October 3, 1912, in the 85th year of his 
age. Almost his entire life was spent in his native province. 

He was married, in 1856, to Jane Mortimer of Pictou, 
by whom he had a large family. Two of his sons are in the 
legal profession; Wallace McDonald at Edmonton, Alta., 
and James A. McDonald at Halifax. One of his daughters 
is married to Sir Hibbert Tupper, Victoria, B. C., and 
another to Mr. Stuart Tupper, Winnipeg, Man., both sons 
of Sir Charles Tupper, a third is married to the Rev. L. H. 
Jordan, D.D., Oxford, England. In that great historic de- 
bate of giants in what is known as the Pacific Railway 
Scandal, in 1873, the palm was unanimously awarded to 

126 



THE BENCH AND THE BAR 

Hon. James McDonald, for his aggressive debating power 
and skill in defence. At that time Sir John A. Macdonald 
said of him, "As true as steel; and is, I think, the ablest 
man in the House of Commons." 

On the first day of October, 1845, there was born at 
East River another lad, who afterwards became one of 
Pictou's most popular sons Duncan C. Fraser. He too, 
was without material advantages; but he was of good 
Scottish ancestry. By push and perseverance he worked 
his way up until he attained the Governorship of the 
Province. 

He received his education in the common schools, and 
later at the Normal School, Truro. After graduating with a 
B.A. degree from Dalhousie College, he taught school for 
some time before being called to the bar in 1873. He had 
a strong instinct for political life, and was a popular de- 
bater. Local politics paved the way for his career at 
Ottawa, where he represented the County of Guysboro for 
many years. He occupied a seat on the Bench of the 
Supreme Court of Nova Scotia for a few years, but gave it 
up to take the Lieutenant Governorship of Nova Scotia. 
His appointment was received with acclamation, and he 
was very popular with the people. 

Governor Fraser had a notable career in Parliament, at 
the Bar, and on the Bench. His influence was widely felt 
throughout the country. He was one of the best stump 
speakers of his day, a rare story-teller, and a genial com- 
panion. Because of his ready wit and powers of oratory 
he stood out prominently in the public life of his time. 

He received the degree of LL.D., from Dalhousie Col- 
lege, and D.C.L., from St. Francis Xavier and King's 
Colleges. He died in 1910. In 1878 he married Bessie G. 
Graham of New Glasgow. One of his sons, Alister Fraser, 
is practicing law at Moose Jaw, Sask. 

Hon. James G. Forbes, has for nineteen years been 
County Court Judge of St. John, N. B., and a pillar of the 

127 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Presbyterian Church of that city. For many years he has 
been connected with the Canadian Bible Society and the 
Lord's Day Alliance and also with the British and Foreign 
Society of London, of which he is one of the Vice Presi- 
dents. 

He is a brother of the Revs. John F. and Adam G. Forbes 
and a native of the County, born in 1838. He took a 
course in law at Harvard University, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1865. He was long a successful practitioner in 
St. John where he has resided for over half a century. 

Hon. Angus McGillivray was admitted to the bar in 
1874, practiced in Antigonish, and was retained in many 
important cases, civil and criminal. He was appointed 
Judge of the County Court in 1902 and was Speaker of 
the House of Assembly in 1883. He resides at Antigonish, 
N. S. 

East River has the distinction of having given to Can- 
ada, three political leaders, Hon. James McDonald, Hon. 
D. C. Fraser, and Hon. Simon H. Holmes. Mr. Holmes 
was born at Springville, in 1831, a son of Hon. John Holmes, 
Senator. He was admitted to the bar, and practiced suc- 
cessfully in Pictou for many years, devoting part of his 
time to journalism. For four years he was Premier of the 
Province. He resides at Halifax where he has been Pro- 
thonotary of the Supreme Court for thirty-two years. 

John D. McLeod is at present, Judge of Probate for the 
County of Pictou, a position he has held for a number of 
years. He was born at West River, being descended from 
an old Highland family, was educated at Pictou Academy, 
studied law, and was admitted as a barrister in 1866. 

Charles D. Macdonald, B:A., son of A. C. Macdonald, 
was born in Pictou in 1854. He entered Dalhousie Col- 
lege in 1869 when only 15 years of age. At 21 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He practiced in his native place until 
1890, when he removed to Halifax. In 1897 he located 
in Edmonton, Alta., where he died some years later. He 



THE BENCH AND THE BAR 

was a brilliant linguist. For several years he was editor 
of the Pictou News. 

Hon. George Geddie Patterson was born at Green Hill, 
and is a son of the late Rev. George Patterson, D.D. He is 
a graduate of Dalhousie University and Law School, and 
practiced in New Glasgow, where he now resides. He was 
appointed Judge of the County Court in 1907. 

Edward Mortimer Macdonald, was born in 1865. Edu- 
cated at Pictou Academy and Dalhousie University, he 
was admitted to the bar in 1887. He has successfully 
practiced his profession at Pictou, where he is head of the 
firm of Macdonald, Ives and Chipman. He has repre- 
sented the County of Pictou in Parliament since 1897. 
Mr. Macdonald has always taken an active part in politi- 
cal matters and is today one of the most influential leaders 
and supporters of the Liberal Party. 

The leader of the Conservative party in the Local House, 
Halifax, is Charles E. Tanner, also a lawyer and a native 
of Pictou town, born there in 1857. In 1888 he was ap- 
pointed Recorder and Stipendiary Magistrate for the 
Town and still holds that office. 

The list below gives 63 names who entered the legal 
profession from the County. The place of birth and 
present location is given. 

BELL, ISAAC, New Glasgow; Winnipeg, Man. 
Son of late Hon. A. C. Bell. 

BLANCHARD, HIRAM, Hon., Pictou; Died 1874. 
Premier for the Province. 

BROWN, ROBERT, Saltsprings; California. 
BROWNRIGG, WM. H., Pictou; Deceased. 
CAMERON, JOHN McKiNLAY, Scotch Hill ; Calgary, Alta. 
DICKSON, WM. A., K.C., Pictou; Pictou, N. S. 
DOUGLAS, JOHN C., B.A., LL.B., Stellarton; Glace Bay, 
C. B. 

Member of the Legislative Assembly. 

129 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

DOULL, JOHN, LL.B., New Glasgow; New Glasgow, N. S. 

ELLIOTT, GEO. H., Pictou; Deceased. 

Mr. Elliott was the son of the Rev. Charles Elliott, the first 
Episcopal minister in Pictou. Born in 1842, admitted to the 
bar in 1868, died in 1904. He practiced law in Pictou. 

FITZPATRICK, H. K., B.A., LL.B., Scotsburn; New Glas- 
gow, N. S. 

Brother of Rev. Jas. Fitzpatrick, New Annan, N. S. 

FOGO, JAMES, HON., Pictou; Died 1897. 
Judge of Probate. 

FORBES, JAMES G., HON., Blue Mountain; St. John, N. B. 
Judge of the County Court. 

FRASER, ALISTER, B.A., LL.B., New Glasgow; Moose 

Jaw, Sask. 
FRASER, DUNCAN C., HON. B.A., LL.D., Churchville; 

Died 1910. 

Lieutenant Governor of the Province. 

FRASER, JAMES A., New Glasgow; Deceased. 

FRASER, JAMES H., B.A. Harvard Univ., Alma; Toronto, 

Ont. 

FRASER, THOMAS M., LL.B., Hopewell; Saskatoon, Sask. 
GRAHAM, ROBERT H., B.A., K.C., New Glasgow; New 

Glasgow, N. S. 

GRAHAM, RODERICK D., New Glasgow; Graduated, 1914. 
Brother of Robt. H. Graham. 

GRAY, WM. S., B.A., LL.B., Hopewell; MacLeod, Alberta. 
GUNN, ALEX. D., LL.B., East River, St. Mary's; Sydney, 
C. B. 

Mayor of Sydney. 

HOLMES, SIMON H., HON., K.C., Springville; Halifax, N.S. 
Prothonotary of Supreme Court. 

HUGGAN, M., IRA, Avondale; Boston, Mass. 
IVES, WELSFORD B., LL.B., Pictou; Pictou, N. S. 
LANE, CHARLES W., Pictou; Lunenburg, N. S. 

130 



THE BENCH AND THE BAR 

LANGILLE, ROBERT M., M.A., LL.B., River John; Syd- 
ney, C. B. 

MACDONALD, ALVIN P., B.A., LL.B., Hopewell; Halifax, 

N. S. 

Editor, Morning Chronicle. 
MACDONALD, CHAS. D., B.A., Pictou; Died in 1908. 

MACDONALD, DONALD D., Bailey's Brook. 
Grad. of Law School, Halifax, 1914. 

MACDONALD, EDWARD M., K.C., M.P., Pictou; Pictou, 

N. S. 

MACDONALD, JOHN W., B.A., Pictou. 

Son E. M. Macdonald, M.P. 

MACDONALD, WILLIAM C., B.A., Bailey's Brook; Halifax, 

N. S. 

Wm. C., and D. D. Macdonald are sons of late D. D. Macdon- 
ald, Bailey's Brook. 

MCDONALD, A. C., West River; Died in 1869. 
MCDONALD, A. J., Lismore; Died at Mabou, C. B. 

MCDONALD, JAMES, HON., Bridgeville; Died in 1912. 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia. 

MCDONALD, WILLIAM, Pictou; Pictou, N. S. 
MCGILLIVRAY, ANGUS, HON., Bailey 's Brook ; Antigonish, 

N. S. 

Judge of the County Court. 

MCGILLIVRAY, JOHN, McLennan's Brook; Died in 1901. 
Born April 2, 1847. Educated at Dal. College. Began the 
practice of law in New Glasgow, 1877. 

MclNNES, HECTOR, K.C., Lyon's Brook; Halifax, N. S. 
Lecturer on the Practice and Procedure of Law, Dalhousie 
University, Halifax. Firm Mclnnes, Mellish, Fulton & 
Kenny. 

MACKAY, ADAMS A., K.C., River John, Halifax, N. S. 

MACKAY, ALEX. T., B.A., Pictou. 
Grad. Halifax Law school, 1913. 

131 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

MACKAY, IRA W., M.A., Ph.D., Scotsburn; Saskatoon, 
Sask. 

Prof. Political Economy, Univ. of Saskatchewan. 

MACKAY, HARRY B., LL.B., Scotsburn; Westville, N. S. 
McKAY, NEIL F., West River; Kaslo, B. C. 

McKAY, RODERICK G., LL.B., East River, St. Mary's; 
New Glasgow, N. S. 

McKiNLAY, JOHN, Pictou; Died in 1888. 

MACKENZIE, GEO. A., Four Mile Brook; Deceased. 

Rev. Chas. E. Mackenzie, Galliopolis, Ohio, and A. Stanley 
Mackenzie, President of Dal., University, Halifax, are sons of 
late Geo. A. Mackenzie. 

MACLELLAN, R. W., B.A., LL.B. 

Mr. Maclellan was a son of W. E. Maclellan, Post Office In- 
spector, Halifax. He was seriously injured in a game of foot- 
ball, from which he died November 10, 1910, at the age of 23. 
He was a young man of great promise, clever, manly, and to 
all appearances had a brilliant career before him. 

MACLELLAN, W. E., LL.B., Durham; Halifax, N. S. 
Post Office Inspector for Nova Scotia. 

McLEOD, JOHN D., K.C., West River; Pictou, N. S. 
Judge of Probate. 

MADDIN, JAS. W., LL.B., Westville; Sydney, C. B. 

MARTIN, JOHN J., B.A., LL.B., Stellarton; Cranbrook, 

B.C. 
MATHESON, DAVID, West River; Died 1886. 

MUNRO, HENRY T., B.A., Pictou; Cambridge, Mass. 
Asst. Prof., International Law, Harvard University. 

PATTERSON, GEO. G., HON., M.A., LL.B., Green Hill; New 
Glasgow, N. S. 

Judge of the County Court and Lecturer on evidence at Dal- 
housie University, Halifax, N. S. 

POWER, JOHN J., M.A., K.C., Pictou; Halifax, N. S. 
Ross, JOHN U., K.C., Pictou; Pictou, N. S. 

132 



THE BENCH AND THE BAR 

SINCLAIR, DONALD C., B.A., LL.B., New Glasgow; New 
Glasgow, N. S. 

STEWART, JAMES MCGREGOR, B.A., Pictou. 

Grad. Halifax Law school, 1914. He is a son of James Mc- 
Gregor Stewart, who took his degree of B.A., from Dalhousie 
in 1876; afterwards practiced law in Pictou. Dr. John Stew- 
art, Halifax, and Rev. Thos. Stewart D.D., Presbyterian Col- 
lege, are brothers of the last named. Their father was Rev. 
Murdoch Stewart, Whycocomagh, C. B. 

TANNER, CHAS. E., K.C., M.P.P., Pictou; Pictou, N. S. 

Leader of the opposition in the House of Assembly, Halifax, 
N. S. 

TURNER, J. W. M., Merigomish; Died in California. 

TWEEDIE, T. M., LL.B., Stellarton; Calgary, Alta. 
Harvard Law School, Member Legislative Assembly. 

VAIR, JAMES D., B.A., Pictou. 
Grad. Halifax Law School, 1913. 



133 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 



PICTOU'S OLD ACADEMY 

Perchance some scoffing passer-by may smile 
In wonder at thy frame, so quaint and crude, 
Considering not, through ignorance, the brood 

That found thee wondrous kind and wise, the while 

Outstretched, thy wings protected them from guile : 
Upbrought and nurtured them to war with rude 
Strong error, rooted in the multitude 

And for the heraldings that reconcile. 

Commerce and Culture felt thy fine foresight; 

Altar and Court-room, Science, Arts of Skill, 
Drew from thy sons safe leaders, and the State 
Enlisted many a stalwart potentate, 

Made fit in thee to sense the people's will 
Yet strong to boldly dare and do the right. 

Peter M. MacDonald 



134 



CHAPTER VI 
THE STORY OF PICTOU ACADEMY 

PICTOU Academy will be one hundred years old, March 
26, 1916. It is one of the best known and probably, 
the most famous academy of learning in Canada. Over it 
was fought the battle of the nineteenth century against 
unconstitutional government and religious intolerance. 
It was largely over the rights and wrongs of the Academy, 
more than any other question, that the fight was waged 
and won for responsible government in Nova Scotia. It 
was a great educator in our provincial politics. Under it 
and through this great conflict our ablest statesmen were 
educated. The life of the Presbyterian Church hung upon 
it, for if it was to be perpetuated and extended, it must have 
a school to educate and train a native ministry. From the 
walls of the Academy has gone forth a constant stream of 
strong men and women into all parts of the world, who 
have graced almost every profession and walk in life. Its 
founders of rugged Presbyterian stock, esteemed education 
of next importance to the Bible, and quickly planted a 
school, on the lines of Edinburgh University, in their eyes, 
the ideal of what a college should be. It was to attract 
students from every clime and send them forth to every 
land. 

The history of the Academy divides itself conveniently 
into five periods: 

The College Period, 1816 to 1831 
The Grammar School Period, 1832 to 1844 
The Union Academy Period, 1845 to 1864 
The Special Academy Period, 1864 to 1884 
The County Academy Period, 1885 

135 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 
THE COLLEGE PERIOD 

The institution had its origin in the brain of its founder 
and first President, the Rev. Thomas McCulloch, D. D., 
Nova Scotia's greatest pioneer educationist, and the 
father of higher education in the Atlantic Provinces. 

Born in Scotland in 1766, educated at Glasgow Univer- 
sity, where he took a course in Medicine, as well as in Arts, 
studied theology at Whitburn, ordained as minister in 
Ayrshire, offered his services as Missionary to the Colon- 
ies, arrived in Pictou, N. S., 1803, and inducted in charge 
of Prince St. Church June 6, 1804 these are the main 
facts in his life. But it is as the champion of liberal and 
religious education in Nova Scotia that his fame chiefly 
rests. In the old Academy he laid deep and strong, in 
a life of great courage and unremitting toil, the founda- 
tion of higher education in Nova Scotia. The country 
is still reaping the fruits of his intellectual activity and 
zealous labors. 

Dr. McCulloch was a man of a rare type. He was pos- 
sessed of fine natural ability, a strong personality, a mind 
finely disciplined and of extensive literary attainments as 
his writings show. 

He wielded the pen with ease and felicity, and when 
needs be, with pungency. He was a born fighter. He 
lived in a stormy time, and to accomplish his purposes for 
church and school, he needed to be to some extent a man 
of war. But amid prejudice and opposition his fearless 
courage and self-sacrifice shone forth in the higher interests 
of the people and country. In 1805, two years after his 
arrival in Pictou, we find him projecting an institution to 
give promising young men a collegiate education. One 
day when musing sadly over the ignorance he found among 
the young, he said to himself, "Why not attempt to train 
the youth of the Province for better things, and perhaps 
for the Ministry." It was a difficult task, on account of 

136 




REV. THOS McCULLOCH, D. D. 



THE STORY OF PICTOU ACADEMY 

the condition of the country and small means at hand, and 
it required the faith and force of a Livingstone or a Lincoln 
to attempt it. Though unable to carry out the idea for 
a time, he never relinquished it, and in due time, it re- 
sulted in the establishment of Pictou Academy. 

His idea was to establish a college for higher education 
open to all classes and creeds alike. For this purpose a 
society was formed in Pictou and subscriptions collected 
amounting to a thousand pounds Dr. McCulloch Dr. 
McGregor and Mr. Ross each giving fifty pounds. He 
opened a school in a log building near his own house, 
but it was soon destroyed by the hand of an incendiary. 
Another was soon erected in its place. 

In 1811 on the passing of the "Grammar School 
Act" Dr. McCulloch received the grant allotted to the 
Pictou district amounting to a hundred pounds a year. 
This School attracted students from all over the Province 
some coming as far as the West Indies. Dr. Patterson 
tells us that Messrs. McGregor and Ross tutored boys in 
Latin and Greek with the idea of matriculating in the 
contemplated College. Thus the leavening power of Dr. 
McCulloch's ambitious ideals were producing fruit, and 
preparing the people throughout the province for the car- 
rying out of his early formed and favorite plans. The 
time seemed now favorable. Edward Mortimer repre- 
sented the District of Pictou in the legislature, and Sher- 
brooke was Governor a man more liberal-minded than 
Wentworth, who occupied the position in 1805. An Act 
of Incorporation was sought and obtained March 26, 1816. 

In the autumn of 1817, the first class comprising 23 
students met in a private house, with Dr. McCulloch as 
Principal. Rev. John McKinlay assisted in teaching 
classics and mathematics, the rest of the Academic work 
was done by the Principal. It was not until 1818 that 
the Academy building was ready to be occupied. The 
Trustees finding that the thousand pounds subscribed 

137 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

was not enough to build the Academy, petitioned Gov- 
ernor Dalhousie for a grant. This was at first refused, 
but afterwards he granted the sum of five hundred pounds. 

Pictou Academy has had a very eventful and chequered 
career. It had to fight its way to recognition and aid. 
Early in its history it had to contend with opposition and 
prejudice; notably, the opposition of the "Council of 
Twelve," and the unfriendly rivalry of King's College, 
Windsor, founded in 1790. This college was receiving 
a grant of nearly $2,000 a year from the provincial treasury 
and $5,000 a year from the British Government. But its 
doors were barred to all but Episcopalians. Dissenters, 
as all other Protestants were called and who formed four- 
fifths of the population of the Province, were destitute of 
all means for an advanced education. Naturally, the 
trustees of the Academy applied to the Council for aid. 
They were refused, for the "Council of Twelve" appointed 
by the Imperial Government were composed entirely of 
adherents of the Church of England, with the Bishop as 
one of its most influential members. They considered 
money spent on the education of Dissenters as worse than 
wasted. They could not tolerate the Pictou idea of a non- 
sectarian College. The House of Assembly, elected by 
the people, and representing their wishes, was always in 
hearty sympathy with the Academy, while the Council 
were deadly opposed hence the long and bitter struggle. 

In 1819 an application was made to Lord Dalhousie to 
have Pictou Academy changed into a college, with power 
to confer degrees, and also asking for the establishment of 
a professorship of Divinity. These requests were both 
flatly refused. For the next four years the council granted 
about $800 a year on application by the trustees. In 1824, 
application was made for a permanent grant of $2,000 a 
year, which was passed by the assembly but rejected by 
the council. Thus year after year the struggle went on. 
Bill after Bill providing grants for the academy were passed 

138 



THE STORY OF PICTOU ACADEMY 

by the House of Assembly but negatived by the council. 
In this matter the council vetoed the voice of the assembly 
no less than fifteen times. 

This continued opposition of the council to the will of 
the people so roused the energy and righteous indignation 
of such men as Joseph Howe and Jotham Blanchard, who 
waged such a vigorous contest, that the agitation finally 
ended in the demolition of the council and in the establish- 
ment of Responsible Government in Nova Scotia. The 
academy greatly suffered from their rivalries. Unfortu- 
nately at this time a section of the Presbyterian Church 
joined forces with the opponents of the Academy. The 
trustees became discouraged for lack of funds to carry on 
the work. In 1830 it was on the brink of ruin. 

Finally, in 1831 Jotham Blanchard was sent to England, 
as the agent of the trustees to lay the whole case before 
the British Government. His mission to England was 
successful. Virtually all the claims of the academy were 
sustained by the Colonial Office. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOL PERIOD 

In attempting to take advantage of this decision com- 
promise was necessary. Those representing the " Es- 
tablished Church of Scotland" with the Universities and 
Theological Halls in Scotland were not interested in the 
higher work of a college which would under local conditions 
very materially aid the preparation of candidates for the 
ministry of the dissenting Presbyterians known as anti- 
burghers, while the established Kirk expected to draw their 
ministers from Scotland or from among Pictonians edu- 
cated in Scotland. These wanted nothing more than a 
grammar school; but if there were to be college studies 
they would have to be conducted in the same building 
not in a separate one. The Trustees under the reform 
Act of 1832 represented the two parties; but the internal 

139 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

friction prevented the successful development of either 
the college or grammar school grades of the academy. 

In 1838 Dr. McCulloch with $800 of grant, was at last 
transferred to Dalhousie College and made president, 
which position he continued to hold until his death in 1843. 
His remains rest in the old Pictou cemetery where his 
students erected a monument to his memory. From 
1832-1842, the academy was reduced to the level of a Gram- 
mar school, with Michael McCulloch, Geo. A. Blanchard, 
Wm. McDonald and Mr. McNaughton as teachers. In 
1842 the grant totally failed. The academy lingered on 
until August 1844 when its doors were closed. The build- 
ing was in a state of dilapidation. The library was 
mouldering on the shelves, the scientific collections were 
sold abroad. 

THE UNION ACADEMY PERIOD 

This state of affairs, however, soon aroused the people. 
Public meetings were called by the two great parties 
of the county. The Act of 1845 carried in its preamble a 
record of the desire of the people interested in the Pictou 
Academy to co-operate "as to unite the two parties 
existing in that county in the support thereof." It is at 
this time the motto "Concordia Salus" was probably 
adopted. It was certainly the first time an effective local 
effort was made to carry out the principle. This period 
is therefore well known as one of union in academic de- 
velopment; and united local support has since carried 
the academy on through subsequent changes with ever 
growing success. The old board of trustees resigned and 
a new union board was elected. The new board of trustees 
set to work energetically in repairing the building, or- 
ganizing the departments, and securing teachers. 

In 1846 the academy re-opened and next year the three 
departments were in good working order. Basil Bell was 
Principal and classical master, with Charles H. Hay and 

140 




PRESENT ACADEMY 




PICTOU'S OLD ACADEMY 



THE STORY OP PICTOU ACADEMY 

Alexander McPhail in the other two departments. In 
December 1847 Mr. McPhail resigned and was succeeded 
by Wm. Jack, who continued in this department until 1865. 
At this time John William Dawson delivered a course of 
lectures on natural history. Mr. Hay suddenly died in 
1847 and some time elapsed before his place was filled. 

In 1850 William R. Mulholland was appointed mathe- 
matical teacher. At the same time W. G. T. Jarvis suc- 
ceeded Mr. Bell, and three years later, he was succeeded 
by T. R. Mulholland. In 1855 W. R. Mulholland was 
transferred to the Normal School, Truro, and T. R. Mul- 
holland resigned. In the same year, John Costley became 
classical master, and continued in charge until 1865, when 
a new era was inaugurated throughout the province in 
educational matters. In that year the Nova Scotia Free 
School system was enacted, and the academy was or- 
ganized into a special academy. 

THE SPECIAL ACADEMY PERIOD 

The Free School Act of 1865 provided grants of $600 
each for county academies, to which students passing 
the entrance examination from any part of the county 
would be admitted free. Pictou Academy and about a 
half a dozen other leading institutions were classed as 
special academies. It was to function as a county acad- 
emy; but on account of its superior equipment received 
a grant of $1000 instead of $600 per annum. Until the 
Act to encourage Academic education in 1885, the academy 
and public schools of the town of Pictou was governed by 
a board of trustees from the Board of the academy and 
the board of the public schools, thus making the academy 
the head of the Pictou public school system. This ar- 
rangement proved most satisfactory, and under this plan 
the academy made another forward step. Herbert A. 
Bayne was appointed first principal and the organizer of 

141 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

the new order of things, which he did most successfully. 
In the autumn of 1867 Mr. Bayne left to complete his 
course in Dalhousie College and Aubrey Lippincott, B. A., 
one of the first graduates of Dalhousie College, was ap- 
pointed substitute principal for a year. He also, was very 
successful in winning the respect and affection of his stu- 
dents and carried forward the work most efficiently. He 
is now a successful eye specialist in Pittsburgh, Pa. 

In the following year Mr. Bayne returned accompanied 
by J. J. MacKenzie. Mr. MacKenzie at first taught the 
preparatory department, but shortly afterwards the two 
departments were combined, Principal Bayne teaching 
classics and science and Mr. MacKenzie English and 
Mathematics. These gentlemen both resigned in 1873 
to take a post graduate course in Germany where each won 
a Doctor's degree. Returning to Canada, Dr. Bayne took 
a position in the Military College, Kingston, and Dr. 
MacKenzie the professorship of Physics in Dalhousie Col- 
lege. Both were cut down by death in early manhood. 

In 1873 A. H. MacKay (now Dr. MacKay, Superinten- 
dent of Education for Nova Scotia) became principal. 
With him was associated F. W. George, M. A., Principal 
MacKay teaching, Mathematics and Science and Mr. 
George, English and Classics. In October 1876, Mr. 
George resigned to enter upon Church work. In 1876, 
Robert Maclellan, the present principal, was appointed 
to the Classical and English department which position 
he held until 1883, when he resigned to take the position 
of Inspector of Schools for Pictou and South Colchester. 

Under Principal MacKay 's strong administration the 
Academy made rapid strides. It became celebrated 
throughout the province and far beyond its limits. Stu- 
dents flocked in from all quarters until there was not room 
enough to receive. Larger quarters became absolutely 
necessary, and the citizens of Pictou, with a public spirit 
worthy of their ancestors, raised about $20,000 for a new 

142 



THE STORY OF PICTOU ACADEMY 

building. It was erected in 1880 on the site of the present 
building. Although it would be entirely inadequate for 
the present day, it was far in advance of any other high 
school building in the province. It contained four class 
rooms, Convocation hall, a small chemical laboratory 
capable of accommodating five or six students. At the same 
time a third instructor became necessary and Roderick 
MacKay, B. A., was appointed teacher of Mathe- 
matics. After two years Mr. MacKay resigned to 
enter the ministry and is now pastor of a congregation 
in Ontario. Mr. W. R. Fraser, B. A., (now Ph. D., Johns 
Hopkins) was appointed as his successor. Mr. Fraser 
taught until 1888 when he resigned to take a post graduate 
course in Johns Hopkins. 

Meanwhile in 1883 Mr. Maclellan resigned as before 
stated, and was succeeded by Mr. Hector Mclnnes, now 
K. C., and head of one of the most influential law firms in 
Halifax. Mr. Mclnnes taught Mathematics while the 
Classical subjects were divided between Principal MacKay 
and Mr. Fraser. 

THE COUNTY ACADEMY PERIOD 

In 1885 the "Act to Encourage Academic Education" 
consolidated the County Academy system of the Prov- 
ince and provided a scale of grants somewhat proportional 
to the equipment and educational work of each academy. 
The Pictou Academy was qualified for the highest scale of 
grant which was an advance upon the previous special 
Academic grant. In 1885 Mr. Mclnnes was succeeded by 
Mr. Humphrey Mellish, B. A., also at present a prominent 
member of the Halifax Bar. In the same year a fourth 
teacher became necessary and Mr. Isaac Gammell, B. A., 
was appointed as instructor in English and History. 
Three years later, in 1888, Mr. Mellish was succeeded 
by R. M. Langille, B. A.; and David Soloan, B. A., was 

143 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

appointed to the position vacated by Mr Gammell, who 
accepted a position in the Montreal High School which he 
still holds; and Mr. Fraser was succeeded by J. C. Shaw, 
B. A. 

It may be here mentioned that a great boom was given 
to the Academy between the years 1880 and 1891 by the 
Munro Exhibitions and Bursaries offered for competition 
to students matriculating into the University of Dalhousie. 
Five Exhibitions of the value of $400 each and ten bur- 
saries of $300 each were presented annually by George 
Munro, of New York, (an old Pictou Academy stu- 
dent by the way). Pictou Academy was always success- 
ful in winning the lion's share of these prizes. 

In 1889 Principal MacKay resigned to take the princi- 
palship of Halifax Academy, which he held for two years 
and was then appointed Superintendent of Education for 
Nova Scotia. At the same time Mr. Langille and Mr. 
Shaw resigned; the former to enter upon practice of Law 
and the latter to take a teaching position in Vancouver, 
where he shortly afterwards died. Robert Maclellan was 
appointed principal and instructor in Ancient Classics and 
modern languages; Mr. V. S. Frazee, B. A., took com- 
mercial branches and mathematics and Mr. H. M. Mac- 
Kay, B. A., mathematics and science. 

In 1891 Mr. Frazee and Mr. Soloan resigned, the former 
to take a teaching position in Providence, and the latter 
to the Principalship of the Presbyterian College in St. 
John's, Nfd. Mr. Frazee was succeeded by A. O. Macrae, 
B. A., and Mr. Soloan by A. C. L. Oliver, B, A. H. M. 
MacKay resigned in 1892 to take a course in engineer- 
ing in McGill College, in which he won very high standing, 
distancing all competitors. Mr. C. L. Moore succeeded 
Mr. MacKay in the mathematical and science department. 
In 1893 C. B. Robinson, B. A., succeeded Mr. Macrae, 
who resigned that year to take up the study of theology. 
He is at present principal of a college in Calgary. 

144 




1 ROBERT MACLEI.LAN LL.D. 

2 HENRY M. MACKAY, M. Sc. 



GROUP OF EDUCATIONISTS 

3 DANIEL A. MURRAY. PH.D. 

4 CHAS. B. ROBINSON, M.A. 
7 HOWARD MURRAY, LL.D. 



A. H MACKAY. LL.D. 
GEORGE M. DAWSON. LL.D. 



THE STORY OF PICTOU ACADEMY 

On October 26, 1895, the Academy building was set on 
fire by lightning, and all the walls destroyed. In addition 
to the destruction of the building, interesting records and 
the greater part of a valuable museum were lost. This 
apparent calamity resulted in good. The building had 
become inadequate to the advancing requirements of the 
work. The people of Pictou responded heroically to the 
call thus made on them and the present building, double 
the size of the former, was erected in the summer of 1896 
and was ready for occupancy in the beginning of 1897. 
In the autumn of 1896, A. C. L. Oliver, one of the 
best-loved teachers the Academy has ever had, was 
cut off by typhoid fever in the flower of his age and useful- 
ness. He was succeeded by H. P. Duchemin, B. A. In 
1897 Mr. Robinson resigned to follow a post-graduate 
course in Science in Cambridge, England; and H. M. 
MacKay, with the degree of B. Sc., from McGill, returned 
to take his place and remained till Mr. Robinson's return 
in 1899. In the same year Mr. Moore resigned to take 
a post-graduate course in Science at Johns Hopkins, and 
was succeeded by J. T. McLeod, who taught for one year 
and was followed by H. F. Munro, B. A. In 1901 Mr. 
Duchemin resigned to engage in the practice of law in 
Sydney in partnership with Mr. C. L. Moore, who had 
meanwhile dropped science for law. Mr. Duchemin was 
succeeded by R. S. Boehner, B. A. In 1906, Dr. Robinson 
accepted an important position under the U. S. Govern- 
ment in connection with botanical work in the Philip- 
pines, and W. P. Fraser, B. A., was appointed to succeed 
him. In December 21, 1913, he was killed by the 
natives of the Philippine Islands, while on a botanical 
expedition. 

In 1905 Mr. Fraser and Mr. Boehner both resigned, the 
former to complete his course in Cornell, the latter to take 
the position of chemical demonstrator in McGill. Angus 
McLeod, Esq., who had been for a number of years the 

145 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

efficient principal of Kentville Academy was appointed to 
the mathematical department and Mr. C. L. Moore, who 
had soon wearied of the quirks of the law, returned to his 
old love, the teaching of science. He remained, however, 
only a few years, tempted by a much higher salary to take 
the supervisorship of the Sydney Schools. He is now 
Prof, in Biology, University of Dalhousie, Halifax, and 
Dean of the Rural Science Faculty in the Provincial Nor- 
mal College at Truro. 

In 1907 Mr. McLeod accepted the principalship of the 
Canso High School, and was succeeded by R. H. McLeod, 
Esq., a graduate of Pictou Academy with an excellent 
record as a successful teacher, and Mr. W. P. Fraser, B. A., 
returned to fill the science department vacated by Mr. 
Moore. Mr. Fraser is now on the staff of the Macdonald 
College, Quebec. On account of ill health Mr. McLeod 
resigned in 1909, and as no regularly qualified successor 
could be obtained the department was conducted by three 
substitutes in succession, J. L. Tanch, Norman Robson 
and John G. McLean. The present staff of Pictou 
Academy includes Robert Maclellan, LL. D., foreign 
languages; John Crerar McDonald, sciences; Howard 
Hersey Mussells, B. A., Mathematics; Robert Ebenezer 
Inglis, B. A., English. 

Looking back over the history of the academy we can 
see how great its influence upon the country has been. It 
has been an important factor in its religious and political 
development. Though crushed and of times defeated, yet 
out of the struggles have come a great inheritance. It is 
estimated at least over five or six thousand students have 
passed through its halls. More than three hundred of these 
have entered the Gospel ministry, men who have not only 
done valiant work in the homeland, but have distinguished 
themselves in Foreign fields. Its lawyers, doctors, poli- 
ticians, merchants and mechanics, are to be found in every 
quarter of the globe. 

146 



THE STORY OF PICTOU ACADEMY 

Confining ourselves to the students of the olden time, 
we find the academy giving the world among others, Sir 
T. D. Archibald, baron of the English court of Exchequer; 
Judge Ritchie, of the Supreme court of Canada; Sir A. 
G. Archibald, Governor of Nova Scotia; Judge Young of 
Charlottetown ; Jotham Blanchard; Geo. R. Young; Sir 
J. W. Dawson, President of McGill University; Dr. Ross, 
Dalhousie; D. M. Gordon, D. D., of Queen's University; 
President Ross Hill, of the State University of Missouri; 
Dr. Robinson, Chief Superintendent of Education for 
British Columbia. These are only a few of the more 
prominent names of the past. There are hosts of men 
of later days, whose names stand high in business and 
professional life. 

Not only in men but in measures is the Academy not- 
able. From the crushed Pictou Academy sprang the non- 
sectarian Dalhousie College, now a large provincial Uni- 
versity. The little class in theology first started by Dr. 
McCulloch was the germ of Pine Hill, the Halifax Presby- 
terian Theological College. The impetus given and the 
interest awakened in the cause of Education by the 
Academy, has made Pictou County ever since the banner 
spot of Nova Scotia educationally. The present Pictou 
Academy is still doing a noble work. When its centenary 
is celebrated, from every part of the country, its children 
will turn to it with warm hearts and sincere appreciation. 



147 



CHAPTER VII 
PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

PICTOU County might be called the Home of Edu- 
cators. It has given eight college^ Presidents to 
Canada, many more than any other single county in the 
Dominion has contributed. Although only a few of its 
educators have attained great eminence, a large number 
have made a commanding place for themselves in the 
educational, literary and scientific world. The county 
was predestined to become an educational centre, for, 
from its earliest days, its Scottish settlers, resolved that, 
whatever the superstructure might be, education and 
religion should form the corner stone and the foundation 
of their community. 

It was Pictou's good fortune, at the beginning of its 
history, to have as leaders men of decided scholarship and 
marked ability, who were firmly convinced that education 
necessarily wenthandinhandwith morality and civilization. 
Others followed them so that there has never been a decade 
in its history in which a number of men have not stood out 
as leaders in the cause of education. Dr. McGregor, the 
first minister in Pictou County, was a man of much 
natural ability. He had, moreover, enjoyed the benefits 
of a thorough College training, and was an excellent 
scholar. From the beginning of his work he made the 
establishing of schools and the education of the people 
second only to the preaching of the Gospel. He was ably 
assisted by his colleague, Rev. Duncan Ross, who was also 
a university graduate. In 1803, a third minister arrived 
in the field; and it may safely be said of him that no man 
ever lived in Nova Scotia who has exercised a more potent 
influence on education. Thomas McCulloch was a stu- 
dent, a scholar, and a born teacher. From the day of his 

149 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

arrival he became a power in educational matters. He was 
the founder of Pictou Academy, and the influence of 
Pictou County on the intellectual life of Canada has been 
largely concentrated in Pictou Academy ever since. 

The pioneers realized that education was a better herit- 
age for their children than gold. Their well-organized 
public schools were proof of this; but it was particularly 
reflected in the sacrifices which made Pictou Academy 
possible. It afterwards became more or less articulated 
with the common school system, and the question in every 
household having sons and daughters was: "Which one 
shall we send to the Academy?" The home was back of 
it. No wonder that from such soil sprang such a crop 
of college Presidents, Professors and Teachers. 

The first schoolmaster was James Davidson, a native of 
Edinburgh. He came to Pictou about 1772, and taught 
school at Lyon's Brook. He returned to Truro, in 1776, 
and spent the rest of his days there. The first teacher in 
Pictou town was Peter Grant, who came from Halifax in 
1793; he opened a school and taught for six years. 
S. L. Newcomb took up the work in 1802. He married 
the daughter of Matthew Harris, and had a family of 
children, several of whose names became well-known in 
later years. George Glennie, a graduate of Aberdeen 
College, succeeded him. He was an excellent teacher and 
scholar, and left his impress upon the youth of that genera- 
tion. 

First upon the list of Pictou's eminent educators and 
College presidents, stands the name of Sir J. W. Dawson, 
LL. D., F. R. S. His life-work extended over a long period 
of years, and he is the most widely known of all Canadian 
educationists and scientists. John William Dawson was 
born at Pictou, on the 13th of October, 1820. While at 
school in Pictou he developed a love for natural science, 
inherited from his father, James Dawson ; and made a large 
collection of fossils from the coal measures so well exposed 

150 




SIR WILLIAM DAWSOX. LL. D. 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

in "the County. When only sixteen years of age, and still 
attending the Pictou Academy, he read before the local 
Natural History Society his first paper "On the Struc- 
ture and History of the Earth." He graduated from 
the University of Edinburgh, at the age of twenty-two; 
and returned to Nova Scotia in company with Sir Charles 
Lyell who began his geological explorations in the Province 
in 1842. Mr. Dawson was then appointed to direct a geo- 
logical survey of the coal fields. 

In 1850 he became the first Superintendent of Education 
for Nova Scotia; and did the pioneer work which resulted 
in the founding of the Provincial Normal School in Truro, 
in 1854, and the passing of the Free School Act of 1864. 
In 1855, he was appointed to the Principalship of the 
McGill University, Montreal. McGill rapidly developed 
under his guidance. He gave course of lectures in chemistry, 
botany, zoology and geology. His "Acadian Geology" was 
published in 1855. But from 1842 up to that event, no less 
than thirty-two papers were published by him, including 
three Annual Education Reports, 1851-3, a geography and 
a text book on Agriculture. From this time his published 
works increased in number, until, up to 1901, his bibliog- 
raphy numbered 551 titles of papers, pamphlets and books. 
His earlier papers on geological subjects had reference 
chiefly to the coal formation of Nova Scotia; and to his 
discoveries of the earliest known reptiles of that age. 
He also had the opportunity of studying along the St. 
Lawrence, the earliest Geological deposits, and this, with 
the investigation of Indian remains before the advent of 
the white man in Canada, gave him a broad outlook on 
the question of primitive man in relation to geology. 
So he was enabled to express in his books, sound and well- 
founded views regarding primitive man and his first sur- 
roundings. 

Dawson's influence great as it was in field of Education 
swept yet a broader horizon in the field of letters. As 

151 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

a Bible student and expositor, Sir William stood high. 
He ploughed deep in the books of Holy Writ; and sub- 
jected those writings to the same keen, critical analysis 
to which he referred various other problems in the scien- 
tific world. He brought out many hidden truths from the 
Word of God, which had been hitherto obscure. "Egypt 
and the Holy Land, their geology and natural resources." 
"Eden Lost and Won," "Archaia," "The Mosaic Cosmo- 
gony," "Modern Science in Bible Lands," "The Origin 
of the World, According to Revelation and Science," form 
part of a series of writings of an apologetic character, 
which in his day, Sir William Dawson deemed necessary 
to combat certain views that were thrust upon the more 
or less observant and thinking world, regarding the origin 
of man as well as of other species living upon this planet. 

As a writer, who sought to present in popular form the 
results of geological science to a larger audience than 
greeted him on the college benches, he was eminently suc- 
cessful. Among the most conspicuous of his popular 
writings, in which the relations existing between science 
and revelation usually formed a portion of his theme, the 
following may be mentioned; "The Story of the Earth and 
Man," "Facts and Fancies in Modern Science," "Fossil 
Men and their Modern Representatives, ""Modern Ideas of 
Evolution," "The Meeting Place of Geology and History." 
The many editions through which these various writings 
have passed, and their ready sale on both sides of the 
Atlantic, testify to their popularity. In the English- 
speaking world his name became a household word, and 
a letter of introduction from him was a passport through- 
out Europe. 

The phenomenal expansion of McGill University, as 
well as the character of his own scientific work, made him 
the recipient of honor after honor. In 1854 he was made 
a Fellow of the Geological Society; in 1862, a Fellow of the 
Royal Society; in 1881 a C. M. G.; in 1882 the first 

152 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

President of the Royal Society of Canada. In 1884 he re- 
ceived the honor of Knighthood from Queen Victoria. He 
was a ' 'man of quiet geniality, gentle and courtly in manner, 
but decided in opinion and firm in action. The pre-emi- 
nent note of his character was sincerity and singleness of 
purpose. " In 1 847 he married Margaret, daughter of George 
Mercer of Edinburgh. He had five children, the eldest 
being late George M. Dawson, C. M. G., the second son, 
William B. Dawson, D. Sc., Ottawa, Can. Dr. Rankine 
Dawson, the youngest of the three sons, is now practicing 
medicine in London, England. The two daughters are 
Mrs. J. B. Harrington, wife of the Professor of Chemistry 
at McGill University, and Mrs. Pope T. Atkin of Birken- 
head, England. 

Sir Wm. Dawson was a Presbyterian of an advanced 
type when his "Archaia" was published, in 1860, de- 
scribing the evolutionary origin of the world as in agree- 
ment with the account in Genesis. But his non-accept- 
ance of the evolutionary development of man left him 
among conservative theologians at the time of his death. 
He died at Montreal, on the 18th of November, 1899, in 
the eightieth year of his age, full of honors as of days, with 
the most distinguished record as a scientist of any Cana- 
dian, past or present. In no part of Canada has the career 
of Sir Wm. Dawson been more closely followed than in the 
Provinces by the sea. Here he was born; here he was 
inspired with the spirit of scientific research. His earliest 
educational and scientific efforts were made here; here 
were laid the foundations of his subsequent great achieve- 
ments. And, while he left Pictou for wider fields of labor, 
he never forgot his native place. His life will continue to 
be an inspiration to many, as the stream of years flows on. 

The following characteristic incident is well worth re- 
cording here : Over sixty years ago, a college student was 
appointed to survey a tract of "crown land" in eastern 
Nova Scotia, a barren region about fifty miles in length 

153 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

and thirty in width, which at that time had within its 
bounds just twenty-six persons. The whole district was 
strewn with granite boulders; had no roads, and was 
traversable only on foot or horse back. There was no 
likelihood that the young surveyors' measurements would 
ever be tested, or his lines run over again, for the soil was 
poor, the timber small and unmarketable. But that 
student handled his chain and compass as under the eye 
of omniscience. 

Some forty years afterward, gold was discovered there ; 
the "leads" were vertical, and fortunes depended upon the 
accuracy of the student's work. Experts were sent by 
the Government to re-survey the whole territory. They 
could not find a single flaw in his work. Peter Grant, a 
Halifax merchant, a stock-holder in one of the mining 
companies said, that after all their tracing and computing 
the Government's most accurate surveyor gave at last the 
full meed of praise to the college student; and, in every 
instance pronounced his lines exact. That young student 
was none other than he who was afterwards the distin- 
guished Sir William Dawson. 

Rev. George Munro Grant, D. D., C. M. G., was one 
of Pictou's worthiest sons. The name Grant is one of the 
most celebrated in the annals of Scottish achievement, as 
well as in Canada. It is not necessary to prove this by 
any such method as a member of the Grant Clan is said 
to have taken to prove the antiquity of his family. The 
ambitious Grant referred to had a Bible with small print, 
and in one of the earlier chapters in Genesis discovered 
an indistinctness in one of the letters of which he took 
advantage and read it: "There were Grant's (giants) on 
the earth in those days." The clan which has given a 
President to the United States, one Principal to Edin- 
burgh University, and another to Queen's University has 
no occasion to resort to such means to establish the 
worth of its blood. 

154 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

George M. Grant was born at Stellarton, December 22, 
1835. He was educated at Pictou Academy, West River 
Seminary, and Glasgow University. He soon became a 
striking figure at the University, and that, too, when 
James Bryce and a host of other great men were his fellow 
students. 

On his return to Canada in 1860, he was ordained and 
placed in charge of the mission at River John. His energy 
led his parishioners to build a church for themselves, which 
they named St. George's Church, after him. In 1863, he 
was called to the pastorate of St. Matthew's Church, Hali- 
fax. Here he gave fourteen years of faithful and brilliant 
service. But such an active mind was not to be held 
within the limits of mere congregational work. Grant 
was too great for that, and ever took his part in the leading 
issues of the day; and in those days great issues were at 
stake ; Free schools, Union of the Provinces, and Church 
Union among the Presbyterians were questions threshed 
out and settled during those fourteen years. Into these 
struggles Grant flung himself with all the strength of his 
energetic nature. 

A three months' trip, from Halifax to Victoria, was 
taken with Sir Sanford Fleming in 1872. At that time 
Western Canada was little known. An account of his 
journey was published, under the title, "From Ocean to 
Ocean," which revealed the marvelous resources of the 
West and the great future in store for Canada. Sir W. 
Robertson Nicoll, in the British Weekly, February, 1911, 
says, "Dr. Grant was the first author who understood the 
tremendous possibilities of Canada, and brought them 
home to a great public. He was an able and far-sighted 
man, a Canadian through and through, and one of the 
greatest of Canada's sons. He is destined to hold a per- 
manent place in her history." 

In 1877, he was appointed principal of Queen's Uni- 
versity, to the interests of which he devoted himself with 

155 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

untiring zeal for a quarter of a century. His admirable 
educational equipment, his strong, keen intellect, his far- 
reaching vision, his commanding presence and voice, his 
great tenacity of purpose, would have gained for him 
eminence in any community or calling. In the diversity 
of his gifts, Grant was a Julius Caesar. Every public 
question claimed his attention; and he rendered signal 
service, not only to the Church, but to the public life of 
Canada. In 1889, he was Moderator of the General 
Assembly. He died in 1902. 

It was naturally to be expected that Dr. Grant's alert 
mind would seek expression through literary channels. 
His successful advocacy of provincial federation doubtless 
prompted the optimistic views on Imperial unity which 
he expressed in his "Advantages of Imperial Federation." 
His equally broad views on the subject of comparative 
religion, are mirrored in his work on "The Religions of the 
World in Relation to Christianity." Not to mention his 
share in that monumental work, "Picturesque Canada," 
his "From Ocean to Ocean," was epoch making in its 
influence. It, more than any other one thing, perhaps, 
opened the eyes of Canadians to the wealth of their 
national heritage ; stirred in them the pulsations of a new 
and broader patriotism, and prepared the way for the 
recent development of Canada. His work is being worthily 
carried on by his son and biographer, W. L. Grant, Prof, 
of Colonial and Canadian History, in Queen's University, 
Canada. 

Rev. James Ross, D. D., LL. D., was a well-known 
educationist and scholar, and rendered distinguished 
service to the cause of education in Nova Scotia. 

The life-work of a successful Christian educationist is 
one which might well inspire the most ambitious, as 
being one of the noblest and most beneficent careers open 
to human choice. Dr. Ross was a Christian educationist 
in the highest sense. He had the joy of unlocking the 

156 




DONALD MACRAE, D.D. 

A. STANLEY MACKENZIE, PH. D. 



COLLEGE PRESIDENTS 

3 JOHN FORREST, D.D. 

4 GEORGE M. GRANT, D.D. 

7 CLARENCE MACKINNON, D.D 



JAMES Ross, D.D. 
DANIEL M. GORDON, D.D. 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

gateways of knowledge to hundreds of young men whose 
influence is still felt throughout the land. He will be 
remembered as one of the "Fathers" of the Presbyterian 
Church. He was son of the late Rev. Duncan Ross, one 
of the two pioneer ministers of Pictou. He was born at 
West River, in 181 1. He was ordained in 1835, succeeding 
his father as minister of the West River Church. Dr. 
Ross married a daughter of the late William Matheson, 
Esq., of West River; and it was through Dr. Ross' zeal 
in the interest of higher education that Mr. Matheson was 
led to donate the sum of $35,000 to that cause in connection 
with the Presbyterian Church. 

In 1848 he was called to take charge of the West River 
Seminary. In 1864 he was appointed Principal of Dal- 
housie College. Whatever he undertook, he performed 
with conscientious fidelity, sparing neither time nor 
strength. For forty years he served the Church in its 
educational sphere, in West River, Truro, and Halifax; 
and thus left a deep impress upon the educational life of 
his time. His last illness was brief. On Monday evening, 
March eighth, while engaged in secret prayer before re- 
tiring to rest, he was stricken with paralysis, and died at 
noon the following Monday, March 15, 1886. His was a 
splendid life, unselfish in all its aims and purposes. Dr. 
Ross was unsparing in his efforts to advance the in- 
terests of his fellow citizens and of humanity in general, 
exercising withal, a high degree of power and influence for 
the moral good and uplift of his native Province. In the 
language of Socrates, regarding a well-spent life, it may truly 
be said of his : ' ' For noble is the prize, and the hope is great. ' ' 

Rev. Daniel M. Gordon, D. D., LL. D., was born in 
Pictou, 1845. He entered Glasgow University when only 
fourteen; graduated, Master of Arts at eighteen, and 
Bachelor of Divinity at twenty-one. Returning to Canada, 
he entered the Presbyterian ministry, and was settled 
at Truro, Winnipeg, St. Andrew's Church, Ottawa, and 

157 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

St. Andrew's Church, Halifax. From this last ministry 
he was appointed to the Chair of Systematic Theology in 
the Presbyterian College, Halifax. On the death of Princi- 
pal Grant he was elevated to the Presidency of Queen's 
University where he has been eminently successful. He 
was Moderator of General Assembly in 1896. His son, 
the Rev. A. M. Gordon, B. D., is assistant to Rev. Dr. 
Herridge, Ottawa. 

Rev. Donald Macrae, M. A., (Aberdeen) D.D., (Queen's) 
was born at Hopewell, 1834, where his father, Rev. John 
Macrae, was minister. He graduated in Arts and Theo- 
logy from the University of Aberdeen, and was ordained 
by the Presbytery of Edinburgh, in 1856. Dr. Macrae was 
a notable figure in the work of the Church in Canada, 
and held an eminent place as a preacher, being a most 
energetic worker. As minister in charge of his father's 
former congregation at Hopewell, N. S., as pastor in St. 
John's, Newfoundland, and in St. John, N. B.; as leader 
in connection with home mission work in the Presbytery 
of St. John; and later, as Principal of Morrin College, 
Quebec, he did most excellent and effective work, never 
grudging time or strength in the service of the Church or 
in the interests of the cause of righteousness in the land. 
He was the sixth Moderator of the General Assembly, 
held in Montreal, in 1880. He died at the home of his son, 
Rev. A. O. MacRae, Ph. D., Calgary, Alta., November 24, 
1909. Another son, Rev. D. N. MacRae, Ph. D,, is 
minister in Mitchell, Ontario. 

Rev. John Forrest, D. D., LL.D., was born in New 
Glasgow, 1842. He is a son of the late Alexander Forrest, 
M. D. He was educated at the Presbyterian College, 
Truro and Halifax, and was ordained and inducted into 
the ministerial charge of St. John's Church, Halifax, in 
1866. He succeeded Principal Ross at Dalhousie College. 
The growth and prosperity of Dalhousie during his presi- 
dency is sufficient evidence of his wise administration. 

158 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

Dr. Forrest, for many years, has been a leader in the courts 
of the Presbyterian Church. At the General Assembly 
of 1910, he was elected Moderator. He retired from the 
Principalship of Dalhousie in 1911, having well earned the 
right to a period of rest in the evening of his life. 

A. Stanley Mackenzie, Ph. D., F. R. S. C., born at 
Pictou in 1865, was appointed to the presidency of Dal- 
housie University on the retirement of Dr. Forrest. He 
took his preparatory course at Pictou Academy; in 1885 
he graduated with high honors from Dalhousie University. 
He received his Ph. D., degree from Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, and later studied in Germany and England. After 
graduating he was appointed tutor of Mathematics, and 
in 1905 Prof, of Physics. 

Rev. Clarence Mackinnon, M. A., D. D., was born at 
Hopewell, N. S., in 1868. He is a son of the late Rev. 
John Mackinnon, a minister of the village for many years. 
His mother was Margaret Tait of Edinburgh. He re- 
ceived his degree of M. A., from Edinburgh University in 
1889; his degree of B. D., from the New College, Edin- 
burgh, 1896. He has ministered to congregations in 
Middle Stewiacke, N. S.; Park St. Church, Halifax; St. 
Andrew's Church, Sydney, and Westminister Church, 
Winnipeg. Since 1909 he has been the esteemed Principal 
of the Presbyterian College, Halifax, and Prof, of System- 
atic Theology. He is a very popular and effective 
preacher and lecturer. 

The story of Messrs. McKenzie, Bayne, McGregor and 
Purves, the first of Nova Scotian students to take a post- 
graduate course in Germany, is one of peculiar interest to 
all. They crossed the Atlantic together in 1874. John 
J. McKenzie, the first mentioned, was Professor of Physics 
in Dalhousie College, Halifax, when he died, in the thirty- 
second year of his age. To go back to his earlier years, he 
was born at Green Hill, Pictou County, in 1847. He took 
his arts course at Halifax, winning the master's degree in 

159 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

1872. Two years later he went to Germany with his fellow- 
students ; and, after a distinguished course in the Univer- 
sity of Leipsic, received the honorable distinction, Doctor 
of Philosophy in 1877. On his return from Germany, he 
was appointed to the Chair of Physics in Dalhousie 
College, which he occupied less than two years, when he 
was stricken down in the prime of his young manhood. 

In addition to the regular work of the College, he de- 
livered a series of popular lectures on scientific subjects 
before the citizens of Halifax, and was an active promoter 
of the Technical Institute. His devotion to science was 
the immediate cause of his death, which took place, 
February 2, 1879. Dr. Bayne, who was his constant 
companion for nearly half his life, was with him the 
night he died. He was buried, amid the regrets of 
students and friends, at his old home, Green Hill. In his 
death Nova Scotia lost an accomplished student of Science 
and a splendid specimen of manhood. 

Herbert A. Bayne, his life-long friend, was a son of Rev. 
James Bayne D. D., Pictou. He was born in 1846, and 
graduated from Dalhousie College in 1871. For several 
years he was principal of Pictou Academy. In 1874 he 
went to Germany to take a post-graduate course in Chem- 
istry, first at Leipsic University. He took his degree at 
Heidelburg. Here he studied under the eminent chemist, 
Bunsen; and received his degree cum multa laude t in 
1876. On his return to Nova Scotia, he was appointed 
Principal of the High School, Halifax. Resigning from 
this position, he was appointed Professor of Chemistry in 
the Royal Military College, Kingston, Ont., where he 
endeared himself to faculty and students by his many 
manly qualities. Ill-health compelled him to resign, and 
he died in Pictou, September 18, 1886, in the fortieth 
year of his age. 

Archibald Purves never became a professor, but would 
not doubtless have done so had he lived, for he was highly 

160 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

skilled in many languages. When J. J. McKenzie and 
Herbert A. Bayne, decided to go to Germany to study, he 
thought it might be good for him to go also. McKenzie 
and Bayne were well grounded in German with the as- 
sistance of General Oscar Malmross, at that time American 
Consul in Pictou. He was a German by birth, and well 
educated. The three fellow students went to Leipsic first. 
Purves afterwards went to Edinburgh, and spent some 
time there. He feared he could not become a fluent enough 
speaker for the ministry, and decided to study languages. 
He continued his studies in Edinburgh during the winters, 
and in Germany in summer time. It was at the latter 
place that he had an attack of pleurisy. Before he was 
convalescent he gave up his room to a student who had 
engaged it for the new term, and went to another boarding 
house. He caught cold in moving, and "lung fever" as 
the Germans call it, set in. He went to Leipsic to consult 
a doctor whom he knew. He was ordered to Davos in the 
Alps, a resort for those with weak lungs. There he ling- 
ered during the winter, and died in March, 1878, while his 
brother, Mr. David H. Purves, was on his way to be with 
him at the end. His brother bought a lot in the cemetery, 
and buried him in Davos. 

A noteworthy coincidence in this connection was J. 
Gordon McGregor's strong desire to accompany the three 
to Leipsic. When he first crossed the Atlantic, as a Gil- 
christ Scholar, he was hardly expected to survive the voy- 
age. His heart action was so weak that he was compelled 
to rest for a year with friends in Edinburgh. He recovered, 
and afterwards had a distinguished and brilliant career; 
as a graduate student in Great Britain and in Germany ; as 
Professor of Physics in Dalhousie, succeeding his fellow- 
student, Dr. McKenzie, and as successor to Professor 
Tait, in the chair of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh. 

Professor McGregor was born in Halifax, and was the 
son of a well-known Presbyterian clergyman, Rev. P. G. 

161 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

McGregor, D. D. He took his arts course in Dalhousie, 
where he earned a first class in every subject of his 
course, and where he afterwards taught for twenty- 
two years, closing his career by giving twelve years of 
eminent service to the Edinburgh University. The 
end came to him with startling suddeness. On the 
morning of May 21, 1913, he arose, to all appearances in 
his ordinary health. He had his bath, and returned to his 
room to dress. There he was taken suddenly ill; called 
in his son, and died almost immediately afterwards. Thus 
ended the chequered career of this quartette of students 
who crossed the Atlantic together to pursue their studies 
abroad. 

It is distressing to think of these hard-working and 
promising young men thus falling by the way prematurely ,- 
McKenzie from inhaling gas during an experiment; Bayne 
from cancer of the stomach, Purves from rapid consump- 
tion and McGregor from heart failure. It is interesting 
to conjecture what they might have accomplished had 
their lives been spared, for they were all men of fine ability, 
ambition and manhood. 

The following list, though far from complete, gives the 
names of some of those who have been leaders in the edu- 
cational life of Canada, as well as, of those who now uphold 
the prestige of their native County. 

BAYNE, HERBERT A., Heidelberg, (Ph. D., 1876), F.R.S.C. 
Professor of Chemistry, Royal Military College, Kingston, 
Can. Died 1886. 

CAMERON, JAMES S., M.Sc., McGill University. 

A member of the staff of the Technical Institute, Montreal. 
His home was Stellarton. 

CAMPBELL, DONALD F., M.A., Ph.D. 

Son of George and Ellen (Gunn) Cameron; born in 1867; Edu- 
cated Dal. Univ., (B.A., 1890, and Harvard Univ., Ph.D., 1898), 
married Miss Lou R. Bates, Davidson, Conn., 1906; Instructor 
in mathematics, Lawrence Science School of Harvard Univ., 

162 




FOUR STUDENTS 

ARCHIBALD PURVKS J. GORDON MCGREGOR, PH. D. 

J. J. MCKENZIE. PH.D. H. A. BAYNE. PH.D. 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

1897-1901 ; Prof, of mathematics and head of the Mathematical 
Department in the Armour Institute of Technology, Chicago, 
111., since 1903; Author of a text-book on mathematics, ex- 
tensively used in the Colleges. 

CAMPBELL, WILLIAM R., A.M., Dal. Univ., 1887. 

Principal Truro Academy, 1887-1907. Inspector of Schools 
for Colchester Co., since 1907. In 1908 he was appointed lec- 
turer in English in the Agricultural College, Truro, N. S. The 
Campbell Bros, were born at East River, St. Mary's, Pictou Co. 

CREIGHTON, JAMES E., Ph.D., LL.D. 

Born West River, 1861; attended Pictou Academy two years; 
taught schools for three years, was graduated from Dalhousie 
College in 1887; pursued post graduate studies in Cornell Uni- 
versity and in Germany; married Miss Katherine F. McLean, in 
1892. He is now professor of Logic and Metaphysics in Cornell 
University; editor of The Philosophical Review, and American 
editor of the Kant-Studien. Published a monograph on the 
"Will and its Functions," and "An Introductory Logic," 3d 
edition 1910 (Macmillan and Co.). Contributor of many papers 
to philosophical journals; received the degree of A. B., at Dal- 
housie, in 1887, that of Ph.D., from Cornell in 1892, LL.D., 
from Queen's Univ., in 1903, and Dal. Univ., 1914. Brother 
of William O. Creighton, West River. 

CREIGHTON, GRAHAM, B. A., Dal. Univ., 1904. 

Born at West River; Inspector of Schools for Halifax Co. 

CONNOLLY, CORNELIUS J., Ph.D., (Munich). 

Professor of Biology, St. Francis Xavier's College, Antigonish. 

GUMMING, MELVILLE, B.A., B.S.A. 

Principal, Agricultural College, Truro. The college was form- 
erly opened in 1905. Principal Gumming is a native of Pictou 
County, a graduate of Dal. Univ., and of the Agricultural Col- 
lege, Guelph, Ont. He is a son of Rev. Thos. Gumming, D.D. 

DAWSON, A. S. 

Chief Engineer of the Department of Natural Resources, Cal- 
gary, Alberta; a native of Pictou, grand nephew of Sir William 
Dawson. 

DAWSON, GEORGE MERCER, C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Mr. Dawson was born in Pictou in 1849. He was the eldest 
son of Sir William Dawson, the well known Principal of McGill 

163 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Univ. He took a course in the Royal School of Mines, London, 
where he not only graduated with honors but took the Duke of 
Cornwall scholarship and the Edward Forbes prize. Return- 
ing to Canada, he began original researches in geology. In 1873 
he was appointed geologist and botanist of the British North 
American Boundary Commission; and his report is one of the 
classics of Canadian geology. In 1875, he was appointed to 
the staff of the Canadian Geological Survey; and entered on 
a remarkable career of exploration of northwestern North 
America. In 1891 he became a fellow of the Royal Society of 
England. During the same year received the Bigsby medal 
for eminent researches in geology. In 1892 he was decorated 
with the order of Companion of St. Michael and St. George. 
In 1893, he was elected President of the Royal Society of Can- 
ada, and in 1895 Director of the Geological Survey. 

It falls to few men to have so many high honors and grave 
responsibilities thrust on them in so short a life; the succession 
is probably without parallel in Canada's history; yet it is the 
common judgment that the honors were fully merited, the 
responsibilities borne in such manner as to add renown to the 
country and the Crown. Dr. Dawson's career was a credit to 
Canada, and an elequent testimony to the wisdom of the nation 
in recognizing and utilizing the talents of her sons. He died 
in 1901, in his 52d year, after an illness of but a few hours. 

DAWSON, WILLIAM BELL, D.Sc., F.R.S.C. 

The second son of Sir Win. Dawson was born in Pictou, 1854. 
Mr. Dawson is a graduate of McGill Univ., in Arts and En- 
gineering. In 1875, he won the Degree of Bachelor of Applied 
Science, with certificate of special merit in Engineering, which 
is the highest distinction in that course of study. In November, 
1875 he studied in Paris the highest School of Engineering 
in France, and one of the first in Europe. The course of study 
extends over three years. He passed as the first of his class, in 
1878. On returning to Canada, Mr. Dawson entered upon 
professional business in Montreal. In 1881 he undertook a 
survey of a part of the Gold Fields in Nova Scotia; was next 
in the employ of the Dominion Bridge Company, the most im- 
portant of his designs being the Cantilever Bridge over the St. 
John River. For nine years he was assistant engineer on the 
Canada Pacific Railway. Since 1893 he has been Supt. of the 
Survey of Tides and Currents, Department of Marine, Canada. 
Both of Dr. Dawson's sons inherited much of the intellectual 
power and industry of their distinguished father. 

164 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

FINLAYSON, JOHN N., M.Sc., McGill Univ. 

Was born at Merigomish. He was educated at Pictou Academy 
and the School of Applied Science, McGill Univ. ; and took his 
degree in 1908. He was appointed Professor of Civil Engi- 
neering, Dal. Univ., Halifax, 1913. 

FRASER, ALEXANDER D., M.A. (Dal.) Ph.D., (Johns 
Hopkins). 

Graduated from Dal. Univ., in 1910, with High Honors in 
classics, and took a post graduate course at Johns Hopkins and 
Harvard. Substituting in classics at Pictou and Halifax Acad- 
emies. He is the son of the late Rev. J. W. Fraser of Scotsburn. 

FRASER, JAMES W., M.Sc., McGill Univ., 1901. 

Was born Bridgeville, 1874; married Miss Annie L. McGil- 
livray; instructor Electrical Engineering McGill Univ., 1899- 
1901 ; Assistant Chief Engineer Southern Power Co., Charlotte, 
N. C., since 1905; Contributor to the Electrical Reviews. 

FRASER, WILLIAM. 

Studied in Dal. College. For forty years teacher in Scotsburn 
District. Among the clergymen taught by him were John 
McMillan, George Murray, Kenneth McKay, John Murray, 
James Murray and James Fitzpatrick. Other well known 
teachers were Alexander Grant, Roderick McLean, Alexander 
Ross and Norman Logan. 

FRASER, WILLIAM A., Poet and Novelist. 

Born and educated in Pictou County; spent his youth in New 
York and Boston. When quite young he went to India where 
he remained seven years; had five years' experience in the Can- 
adian Northwest; some of his tales are connected with these 
Eastern and Western Lands. He has written many short 
stories, these appearing in the leading American and English 
Magazines. The following is a list of his publications in book 
form: "The Eye of a God," "Mooswa and Others of the 
Boundaries," "The Outcasts," "Brave Hearts," "Thirteen 
Men," "The Lone Furrow," (1907); wrote a national song en- 
titled "Canada, God and Our Land." He is a master of the 
short story, and is sometimes called "The Canadian Kipling." 
He resides at Georgetown, Ont. 

FRASER, WILLIAM P., M.A. 

Professor in Biology, McDonald College, St. Anne's, Que. 
Mr. Fraser was born at French River. He was a former mem- 
ber of the Pictou Academy Staff. 

165 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

FRASER, WILLIAM R., Ph.D., (Johns Hopkins). 

Formerly Lecturer in Classics, McGill Univ., was born at West 
River. He is now conducting a private school in Montreal. 
He was for many years a successful teacher of Classics in Pictou 
Academy. 

HARRIS, GEORGE WILLIAM, Librarian, Cornell Univ. 

Son of the late John F. Harris, and nephew of a former Sheriff 
of the County. He graduated from Cornell University in 1873 ; 
and has ever since that time been connected with the library of 
the University, becoming head librarian in 1890. He is a recog- 
nized authority on bibliographical matters, being a life member 
of the Bibliographical Society of London, and of the American 
Library Society. He has contributed many articles to library 
journals, and is editor of the Library Bulletin of Cornell Uni- 
versity. He was born in Pictou town, in 1849, and received 
his preparatory education at Pictou Academy. 

HEPBURN, WILLIAM MURRAY, M.A., Dal. Univ., (1895.) 
Chief Librarian Purdue Univ., La Fayette, Ind. 

JOHNSON, ALLEN C., Ph.D., (Johns Hopkins). 

Assistant Professor in Classics, Princeton, N. J. Some time 
tutor in classics (Dal). 

JOHNSTONE, J. H. L., B.Sc., (Dal.). 

Born at Pictou, 1891. Graduated from Dalhousie University 
in 1911 with High Honors in Mathematics and Physics. 
Appointed Instructor in Physics, Dal. Univ., 1912. 

KENNEDY, WILLIAM T. 

Principal of Halifax Academy. Died 1907. The Presbyterian 
Witness says of him, "Mr. Kennedy was born at Sunny Brae, 
of good Highland Stock. He was the stamp of a man we should 
like to see at the head of our institutions of learning; genuinely 
Christian, rigorously correct in life and work, never flinching 
from the path of duty. As a teacher, his merits have been 
recognized all over the country." 

LOGAN, JOHN D., M.A., (Dal., 1894), Ph.D., Harvard 
(1896). 

Is a well known educationist and man-of -letters. He was born 
in the Town of Pictou; educated at the Dal. Univ., where he 
graduated with High Honors in philosophy in 1893. Subse- 
quently he studied at Harvard Univ. For some years he was 
head of the Dept. of Philosophy in the Univ., of South Dakota; 

166 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

from 1908-1910 he was literary and musical critic of the Toronto 
Sunday World. Since then he has been on the editorial staff of 
the Toronto News. He is author of a number of books and of 
articles on Philosophy, Literature and Art. Author: "Pre- 
ludes, Sonnets and other Verses," "Songs of the Makers of 
Canada," with an introductory critical essay on Canadian 
poetry. 

McBAiN, ALEXANDER Ross, B.A., (Dal.) M.A., McGill 
Univ. 

Professor in the Protestant High School, Montreal, Can. 

McCoLL, RODERICK. 

Is a son of the late Jeffrey McColl, of New Glasgow; born there, 
1866. Graduated from the Royal Military College, Kingston, 
1886; from 1904 to 1913 was Provincial Engineer for the Prov- 
ince, with headquarters at Halifax, N. S. His brother Archi- 
bald McColl is Secretary and Chief Accountant for the Nova 
Scotia Steel Works, New Glasgow. 

McCuLLOCH, MICHAEL, Educationist. 

A son of Dr. McCulloch, came to Pictou with his father at 
about three years of age. He was one of the first class which 
passed through the Academy. In 1824 he was appointed his 
father's successor, teaching Classics and Mathematics. After 
the institution closed he taught a private school in Pictou and 
was afterwards Principal of the Yarmouth Academy. He died 
in his eighty-third year. Mr. McCulloch was a man of 
strong powers of mind and accurate scholarship. 

MCCULLOCH, THOMAS, Professor in Dalhousie University. 
Was a son of Dr. McCulloch of the Academy, and was ap- 
pointed to aid Prof. Ross in the Classical and Philosophical 
Departments in the West River and Truro Seminaries. When 
Dalhousie College was reorganized, in 1863, he was transferred 
from Truro to Halifax to form a part of the Dalhousie Faculty. 
Both sons of Dr. McCulloch spent their lives in the work of 
higher education, and were thus worthy sons of a worthy sire. 

MACDONALD, ARTHUR C., C. E. 

Is a member of the firm MacDonald and Gibbs, with offices at 
London, England and Chili, South America. The Chilian 
Northern Railway, which runs through the Chilian Desert, was 
built by him. It is 430 miles long, and cost $15,000,000. He 
also built the Bolivia Railway. This road is 823 ft., above 
the sea level and is said to be one of the highest points ever 

167 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

reached by a railway. Mr. MacDonald was born in the town 
of Pictou; is a younger brother of the late Charles D. Mac- 
Donald, Barrister, of Edmonton, and a cousin of E. M. Mac- 
donald, M. P. 

MACDONALD, ALEXANDER H., a veteran, San Francisco 
Educator. 

Mr. MacDonald was for fifty-one years identified with the 
common schools of California, thirty-two of which he was 
Principal of the Lincoln Evening School, San Francisco. He 
was born at Sunny Brae, in 1830, and was a brother of Rev. F. 
R. MacDonald. 

MCDONALD, DANIEL. 

Born at Barney's River; Educated at West River Seminary, 
appointed Inspector of Schools for Pictou County in 1869, re- 
tired in 1879. Died 1880, aged 71 years. 

MACDONALD, DONALD P., M. Sc. 

Son of John J. MacDonald, Merigomish. In 1905 he grad- 
uated from Washington Univ., Washington, D. C. He also 
took the degree of Mining Engineer and Master of Science 
from same university. He then did two years' work in the 
Graduate School of Geology in the Univ. of Chicago. From 
1909 to 1910 he was in charge of the work in Geology at 
Tulane Univ., New Orleans. He is now on the U. S. Geologi- 
cal Survey, Washington, D. C. 

MclNTOSH, DOUGLAS, B.Sc.,(Dal.) D.Sc. Cornell, F.R.S.C. 

Associate Prof, of Chemistry, McGill Univ., was born in New 
Glasgow. He is the author of several valuable papers on Chemi- 
cal subjects, the results of long experimenting and original 
study, which have been published in the leading Chemical 
Journals of the day. He took his B. A. degree at Dalhousie, 
and also studied in Cornell and in Germany. 

MclNTOSH, HENRY HAVELOCK. 

Inspector of Schools for Lunenburg and Queens, is a native of 
Merigomish, and was educated at Pictou Academy and Dal. 
Univ. 

MACKAY, ALEXANDER H., M.A., F.R.S.C., LL.D. 

Supt. of Education of Nova Scotia, was born at Plainfield, a 
district which has contributed many able men to the intellectual 
life of Canada. He was educated at Pictou Academy, and 
Normal School, Truro; graduated from Dal. Univ., with dis- 
tinction in Mathematics and Physics, 1873; B.Sc., with Honors 

168 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

in Biology, in 1880, from the Univ. of Halifax. The Degree of 
LL.D., was conferred upon him by Dal. Univ., in 1892. He 
married Maud A., daughter of the late Dr. G. M. Johnstone, 
Pictou, 1882. He was Principal of Pictou Academy for sixteen 
years, (1873-1899); Halifax Academy (1889-1890); since then 
Supt. of Education for Nova Scotia. He organized the 
Summer School of Science for the Atlantic Provinces, and 
assisted in the founding of the Educational Review, St. John, 
N. B. He is a Governor of Dal. Univ., and was a delegate 
to the Conference on Education, London, England, 1907. 
Dr. MacKay is one of Canada's foremost Educationists and 
Scientists. 

MACKAY, EBENEZER, B.A.,(Dal.) Ph.D., (Johns Hopkins). 
McLeod Professor of Chemistry Dal. Univ., graduated from Dal. 
Univ., in 1886, with first class honors in Experimental Physics 
and Chemistry and the Mackenzie Gold Medal, and from Johns 
Hopkins Univ., Ph.D., 1896; Special Studies at Harvard Univ.; 
Principal of New Glasgow High School for six years; McLeod 
Prof, of Chemistry and Mineralogy at Dal. Univ., since 1896. 
Prof. MacKay is a native of Plainfield, where he was born in 
1864. 

MACKAY, HENRY MARTYN, B.A., (Dal.), M.Sc. 

Professor of Civil Engineering, McGill Univ., is a brother of 
Prof. Ebenezer MacKay, and was born in 1868. Educated in 
Pictou Academy and Dal. Univ. ; B.A., with honors in pure and 
applied Mathematics, 1888, and B.Sc., with Governor General's 
medal for highest general standing 1894; married, 1910, Lillian 
Norton Evans, Montreal; Mathematical Master, Pictou Acad- 
emy, for five years; in 1908 was made Professor and head of 
the Civil Engineering Dept., McGill Univ., Montreal, where 
he is acknowledged to be a high authority in his profession. 

MACKAY, IRA ALLAN, B.A., LL.B. 

Professor of Philosophy and Political Science, Univ., of Sas- 
katchewan, Saskatoon, Sask., is the eldest son of Robert Mac- 
Kay, Millsville; B.A., Dal. Univ., with honors in Philosophy, 
1897; M.A., 1898; LL.B., 1905; Ph.D., Cornell Univ., 1901; 
called to Bar 1895; Successfully practiced his profession in 
Halifax and Winnipeg for several years. Since 1910 has been 
connected with the Univ., of Saskatchewan. Dr. MacKay was 
a well known scholar and an author of some note, publishing, 
"Canadian Nationality" in 1907. 

169 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

MACKAY, KENNETH G., M.Sc. 

Was born at Scotsburn; educated at the Agricultural College, 
Guelph, Ont., and the Moody Institute, Chicago; graduated 
B.Sc., Toronto Univ., 1906, and M.Sc., Iowa State College, 
U. S. A., 1913. He is now assistant Dairy Commissioner for 
the Province of Saskatchewan with headquarters at Regina. 

MACKAY, NORMAN C., B.Sc., Toronto Univ., 1911. 

Brother of Kenneth G. MacKay; Lecturer on Agriculture for 
the Ontario Government. 

MACLELLAN, ROBERT, LL.D., Principal of Pictou Academy. 
Is the second son of the late John Maclellan, Esq., of Durham. 
His early education was received at the Grammar School, Dur- 
ham and at Pictou Academy. He entered Dal., College in 
1870, and led his classes at the end of the term in Mathematics 
and English and divided honors in Classics; married Miss 
Martha M. Fraser. Took charge of the Preparatory Depart- 
ment of Pictou Academy, 1873; appointed English and Classical 
Master in 1877; Government Inspector of Schools for the 
Counties of Pictou and So. Colchester, 1883; called to the 
Principalship of Pictou Academy on the retirement of Dr. Mac- 
Kay, 1889, in which position he is now completing his twenty- 
fifth year one fourth of the whole lifetime of the Academy. 
In addition he taught Classics, as a colleague of Dr. MacKay, 
for six years. 

In 1908, the Senate of Dal. Univ., conferred on him the 
honorary degree of LL.D. In presenting him Prof. Murray, 
Dean of the Senate said: "Pictou Academy has been singu- 
larly fortunate in having at its head a long line of men who have 
earned distinction both as teachers and leaders in the educa- 
tional world, and among these our distinguished Alumnus, 
Robert Maclellan, holds a high and honorable place. In recog- 
nition of the high character of his work as a teacher and of the 
eminent success of his Principalship, I ask you, Mr. President 
in the name of the Senate of this University to confer the degree 
of Doctor of Laws, honoris causa, on Robert Maclellan." 

MACLEOD, JAMES D., B.A., (Dal.). 

Professor of Mathematics, Western Canada College, Calgary, 
is the son of Mr. William Macleod, Scotsburn. He was edu- 
cated at Pictou Academy and Dal. Univ., Halifax, where he won 
the North British Society Bursary. For two years he was 
Principal of the Public Schools of Westville, and for two years 
Mathematical Master at Pictou and Sydney Academies. 

170 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 
MACLEOD, JOHN W., M.A. 

Professor of Mathematics, St. Francis Xavier's College Anti- 
gonish, was born at Scotsburn, educated at Pictou Academy, 
St. Francis Xavier's College and McGill Univ., Montreal. For 
four years he was Principal of the Public Schools of the town of 
Stellarton, and three years Prof, of Mathematics, St. Francis 
Xavier's College. A member of the engineering staff of The 
Halifax Ocean Terminals. A sister, Anna Elizabeth Macleod, 
graduated from Dal. Univ., in 1906 with "Great Distinction." 
For five years she was Principal of the Protestant Schools of 
Antigonish. She is married to Rev. A. A. Macleod, B. D., 
Trenton. 

McLEOD, DONALD F. 

Graduated from Cornell College of Civil Engineering in the 
class of 1907. He is a native of Middle River, and was for some 
time Principal of the Trenton Schools. He is now located in 
Florida. 

McLEOD, FRANK THOMAS, B.A., (Dal.). 
High School Teacher, Victoria, B. C. 

McLEOD, JOHN W., B.A., Univ. of London, 1913. 
Principal of the High School, New Glasgow, N. S. 

MACKENZIE, WILLIAM B., Canadian Railway Service. 

Born at Kenzieville, 1848; entered the Railway Service, 1872; 
since 1897 has been chief engineer of the Intercolonial Railway 
with offices at Moncton, N. B. 

MACKENZIE, WILLIAM R., B.A., (Dal.), Ph.D., (Harvard). 
Professor of English Literature in Washington Univ., St. Louis, 
Mo. His brother Thomas E. Mackenzie, B.A., is a mining 
engineer in Mexico; both are sons of Archibald Mackenzie, 
Esq., River John. 

McKENziE, JOHN JAMES, M.A., (Dal.), Ph.D., Univ. of 
Leipsic, 1877. 

Died 1879. Professor of Physics, Dal. Univ. 

MCLEAN, HERBERT B., M.A., Ph.D., (McGill Univ.). 

Professor in the Technical High School, Montreal. His brother 
W. B. McLean, B.Sc., is a consulting Engineer in Montreal. 
The McLean brothers are sons of James McLean, Postmaster, 
Pictou. 

171 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

McKiMMiE, ANDERSON, B.A., (Princeton Univ.). 

Assistant Professor in French, Mass. Agricultural College, 
Amherst, Mass., is a great grandson of the late Rev. Duncan 
Ross, of West River, and a grand nephew of the late Principal 
Ross of Dalhousie College. 

MATHESON, HOWARD W., B.Sc., (Dal.), M.Sc., (McGill). 
Was born at Lime Rock; received his Master's Degree at Mc- 
Gill Univ., and was awarded the Governor General's Medal for 
Graduate Research. In 1911 he accepted a position on the 
Chemical staff of the Du Port Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 

MATHESON, ROBERT, B.Sc., Ph.D., (Cornell). 

Son of Walter Matheson, Lime Rock; he was Professor of 
Entomology in the State College of Agriculture, So. Dakota, 
1907-1909; Provincial Entomologist, Agricultural College, Truro 
1912-1913; appointed for Research Work, Cornell Univ., 1913. 

MURRAY, DANIEL A., B.A., (Dal.) Ph.D., (Johns Hopkins). 
Is the son of the late Angus Murray, Scotsburn, a community 
which has produced some of the best men in the Province. 
The family moved to Truro when Mr. Murray was a boy of six 
years. He graduated with honors from Dal., College in 1884; 
studied at Johns Hopkins, Berlin and Paris; married Alice M. 
Malloch, Hamilton, Ont., in 1906. Professor of Mathematics 
in the University of New York and Dalhousie; since 1907 
has been Professor of Applied Mathematics in McGill Univ. 
He is the author of several Mathematical Text Books adopted 
by many colleges and High Schools, among them "Differential 
Equations," "Integral Calculus," "Plane Trigonometry," "In- 
finitesimal Calculus." President Schurman says of him: "He 
is a man of the highest abilities." He has two brothers 
practising medicine; Dr. H. V. Murray, Honolulu, and Dr. L. 
N. Murray, Halifax. 

MURRAY, EBENEZER H., B.A., Ph.B., Univ. of Chicago. 
Supt. of Schools, Montana, is a native of Plainfield, and a brother 
of Dr. D. Murray, Campbellton, N. B., and Murdoch Murray, 
General Secterary, Y. M. C. A., Hyde Park, Mass. 

MURRAY, HOWARD, B.A., (Lond.) LL.D., (Toronto). 

McLeod Professor of Classics, Dalhousie, Univ. Mr. Murray 
is a son of the late Dr. George Murray and was born at New 
Glasgow, 1859. Was Canadian Gilchrist Scholar in 1881, B.A., 
Univ. of London, England; studied in Edinburgh, Univ.; mar- 
ried, Janet, daughter of the late George Hattie, Halifax, 1890; 

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PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 

successively teacher in Guysboro Academy, New Glasgow High 
School and Halifax Academy; Professor of Classics in Dal. 
Univ., since 1894 and Dean of the College since 1901; He is 
the author of a book on "Classics, Their Use and Future Pros- 
pects." As a classical authority, his reputation stands high. 

PATTERSON, GEORGE, D.D., LL.D. 

Was born at Pictou, 1824, and died at his home in New Glas- 
gow, 1897, in the seventy-fourth year of his age. He was edu- 
cated at Pictou Academy and the U. P. Theological Hall, Edin- 
burgh. On his return to Nova Scotia, in 1849, he was inducted 
minister, at Green Hill where he labored for twenty-seven years. 
He then resigned and moved to New Glasgow where he resided 
until his death. In the Presbyterian Church, Dr. Patterson 
was recognized as a man of prominence and usefulness. He was 
an authority in Ecclesiastical law, and procedure. Though not 
settled as a minister, in charge, for over twenty-one years, he 
went far and wide, supplying vacant churches, organizing Home 
Mission Stations, and at the same time taking a most lively 
interest in the Courts of the church. Probably there is no man 
now living who has traversed the Maritime Provinces as thor- 
oughly, or known so much of the past and present of every 
section. Dr. Patterson was a devoted friend of Foreign Mis- 
sions and of Public Education. He was one of the founders of 
the Widows and Orphans Fund and for many years its manager. 
He was a prolific writer; his Life of his grandfather, Dr. Mc- 
Gregor is a most readable biography. His Life of Dr. Geddie, 
and a companion volume on Matheson and his wife, and S. F. 
Johnston, are excellent missionary books. His history of 
Pictou Co., is a work which involved an immense amount of 
care and pains and is of the highest value in many respects. His 
work on the Trinity is an able discussion of a difficult theme. 
Highly noteworthy are his scientific and historical papers, read 
before various societies papers that are of permanent value. 
His son, Hon. George Geddie Patterson, Judge of the County 
Court, resides in the old home in New Glasgow, N. S. 

POOLE, HENRY S., M.A., Kings College, Windsor, D.Sc. 
London, F.R.S. 

Was born at Stellarton, 1844; educated Kings College and 
Royal School of Mines, London, Eng. ; Inspector of Coal Mines 
for Nova Scotia, 1872-1878; subsequently general Manager 
Acadia Coal Co., Stellarton, retiring in 1901. He is now 
a resident in England. 

173 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

POTTINGER, DAVID. 

Was for fifty years in the service of the Intercolonial Railway; 
was born in Pictou, in 1843; entered the Railway Service as clerk 
in 1863; chief Supt. of the Intercolonial from 1879-1892; Gen- 
eral Manager Canadian Government Railways, 1892-1904; 
since then has been a member of the Railway Managing Board. 
Mr. Pottinger has had an honorable career and is a thoroughly 
practical railway man. 

ROBINSON, CHARLES B., M.A., (Dal.). 

Was the only son of C. B. Robinson of Pictou. He graduated 
at Dalhousie College in the class of 1892, winning the Univ. 
Medal, and taught the Science Departments for several years 
in the Academies of Kentville and Pictou. His bent as a 
naturalist was strong, and after having familiarized himself 
with the botany of Eastern Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the 
Lower St. Lawrence, he spent some years at Cambridge Univ., 
England, one of the great botany schools of the world. Associa- 
tion with a party of field workers in Pictou County sent out by 
Columbia Univ., N. Y., led to his being invited to take up work 
at the Bronx Museum, New York, about ten years ago, sub- 
sequent to which he received an appointment, under the United 
States Government, to classify the flora of the Philippines. 
After two years spent in the Islands, he returned to New York 
leaving for Manila, in September, 1912. On the 21st of Decem- 
ber, 1913, he was killed by natives of Amboyna Island, Malay 
Archipelago, where he had undertaken an expedition for the 
study of the flora of the Island. He was forty-one years of 
age and unmarried. He was a young man of fine natural abil- 
ity and attained high rank as a botanist. 

Ross, WILLIAM H., B.Sc., (Dal.) Ph.D., (Chicago). 

Was appointed to the position of Soil Chemistry in the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. He is a native 
of River John, and a graduate of Dalhousie Univ., where he 
was nominated to the Science Research Scholarship in 1904. 
The line of work which he is taking up consists of an endeavor 
to find some economical method for the extraction of potash 
from feldspar. This compound is used as one of the principal 
constituents of artificial fertilizers, and is at present imported 
from Germany to a large extent. He is assistant editor of 
"Chemical Abstracts," one of the largest Scientific Journals 
published. 

174 



PICTOU EDUCATIONISTS 
Ross, ALEXANDER, B.A., (Dal.) 1867. 

Was born at Scotsburn. Teacher and Educator; Principal of 
High School, Dalhousie, N. B. Retired and residing in Halifax. 

STRAMBURG, HECTOR M., B.A., (Dal.) 1875. 

Principal of the High School, New Westminster, B. C., is a 
native of River John. 

SULLIVAN, CHARLES, B.A., (Dal.) Ph.D., (Chicago), M.Sc., 
McGill. 

Assistant Professor Mathematics, McGill Univ., was born and 
educated in New Glasgow, and is assistant to Prof. D. A. Mur- 
ray. 

TAIT, WILLIAM D., B.A., (Dal.) Ph.D., (Harvard). 

Assistant Professor of Experimental Psychology, McGill Univ., 
was born at Hopewell, 1879, and is of Scottish origin. He won 
honors in Philosophy in Dalhousie, and pursued a thorough 
course of study at Harvard, receiving his degree in 1909. He 
married Mary Alice, daughter of the late Edward Maxwell, 
Halifax, 1909. Dr Tait, in his department, has carried on 
original research which has been highly commended by the 
Univ., authorities. 

WILSON, JOHN 

Was born in New Glasgow in 1877. He early exhibited a 
talent for sculpture; studied under Bela Pratt and Henry 
Kitson of Boston, has executed several commissions very 
successfully, including Soldiers Monument at Brownfield, Me., 
Firemen's Monument at Forest Hills Cemetery, Boston. He 
conducts a school of sculpture at Boston. 

A nation is rich indeed which has such men as those 
above named among its assets. For they were, first of 
all, men. One does not have to apologize for blots and 
stains in their lives, as an American must do for Poe, an 
Englishman for Byron, or a Scotsman for Burns. Pictou 
County is justly proud of having given birth to these 
moulders of thought. Through them, it has made a 
monumental contribution to the ultimate history of this 
still young nation it has put something of the touch of 
sublimity into the morning of our national life. Canada 

175 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

occupies the latitude whence sprang the greatest nations 
of history; no better or more promising people than hers 
ever broke virgin sod; she has a high destiny to idealize 
and realize; these worthies of Pictou County are among 
the best of the first fruits; they afford a cheering assur- 
ance that our Dominion's destiny is to excel in all which 
makes a nation's truest life purposeful culture, guided 
by sanctified conscience. 



176 



CHAPTER VIII 
PICTONIANS IN FOREIGN FIELDS 

THE Presbyterian Church in Nova Scotia was the 
first of all the British Colonies to establish a mission 
in a foreign land; and the Rev. John Geddie was its first 
missionary. To Mr. Geddie belongs the honor of origi- 
nating such a mission. It was largely through his efforts 
that the Foreign Mission Board was organized. He went 
out from Pictou in 1846 to the New Hebrides, the chosen 
field of his labors. He was one year and seven months in 
reaching his destination. For twenty-four years he 
labored there. After his death a memorial tablet was 
erected on the island on which were engraved these sig- 
nificant words: "When he landed, in 1848, there were 
no Christians here; and when he left in 1872, there were 
no heathen." The story of the first foreign mission enter- 
prise of the Presbyterians of Canada is of deep interest. 
The pioneer missionary, Dr. Geddie, was born in the 
quiet old Scotch town of Banff, Scotland, on the 10th day 
of April, 1815. When about a year old his parents re- 
moved with him to Pictou, N. S. His father being a 
clockmaker, of small earnings, the young lad could not 
get much assistance from him. Like many of the world's 
best men, he had to work his own way. At twenty-two 
he was licensed to preach. He entertained the hope 
that the Presbyterian Church in Nova Scotia, of which 
he was a member, would found a foreign mission of her 
own, and send forth and support her own foreign 
missionary. But the Church was not ready. In 1838, 
he accepted a call to Cavendish and New London, 
Prince Edward Island, and was ordained there. Two 
years before this he had married Charlotte, daughter of 
Dr. Alexander McDonald, Antigonish, who proved a 

177 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

faithful companion and helper. He entered upon his 
work with ardor; but he did not forget his darling pur- 
pose while engrossed in his labors at Cavendish. His 
letters to the local papers and the Presbyterian Banner 
attracted attention and were read widely. He organized 
a missionary society in his own church, and induced other 
congregations to do the same in theirs. He won many of 
the people; the Presbytery of Prince Edward Island, and 
finally, the Synod of Nova Scotia to his views. 

In July, 1843, the year of the disruption in Scotland, an 
overture was introduced for the first time in Synod to 
undertake foreign mission work. At the next meeting 
of Synod, held in Pictou, July 11, 1844, it was resolved by 
a vote of 20 to 14 to appoint a Board of Foreign Missions. 
The Board consisted of Revs. John Keir, R. S. Patterson, 
Robert Douglass, William McGregor, John Geddie, John 
C. Sinclair, James Bayne, James Waddell, John McCurdy 
and John I. Baxter. Several elders were added. The 
first meeting was held at the close of Synod in Pictou, 
John Keir, convenor, James Waddell, recording Secre- 
tary, and John Geddie, corresponding Secretary. A year 
later, Revs. David Roy and George Christie, with John 
W. Dawson, (afterward Sir John W., principal of McGill 
University) were added to the Board. Dr. Dawson was 
a life-long friend of Dr. Geddie and his mission. 

The Board reported progress to the Synod of 1845. By 
a majority of one the Synod authorized them to select a 
field and appoint a missionary. The Board met Septem- 
ber 24, 1845; and, after prayerful consideration, chose 
the South Sea Islands as their field, and Rev. John Geddie 
as their missionary. Thus, nearly seventy years ago, the 
foreign mission work of the Church first took definite 
shape. It will be easily seen that the year was a marked 
one in the history of Canadian Presbyterianism. With a 
Synod composed of only twenty ministers, fifteen elders 
and five-thousand members; a treasury which had only 

178 




PIONEER FOREIGN MISSIONARIES 

1 JOHN W. MCKENZIE. D.D. 3 JOHN GEDDIE. D.D. 

2 HUGH A. ROBERTSON, D.D. 4 JOHN MORTON, D.D. 6 



MRS. JOHN W. MATHESO> 
KENNETH J. GRANT, D.E 



PICTONIANS IN FOREIGN FIELDS 

$1000, and a motion to send a missionary carried with 
the bare majority of one, they launched the enterprise! 
No wonder there was much apprehension as to its future. 
In all the succeeding years that historic act has given 
energy and courage to the Presbyterians of the Maritime 
Provinces, and inspired the rest of the country to imitate 
their example. That enterprise with its one missionary 
has developed into missions in Trinidad, Central India, 
Formosa, China and Korea. In 1845, the Church was 
able to raise a foreign mission fund of only $1000. Today, 
the Church is raising about $310,000 to sustain its mis- 
sions, and has 146 missionaries in foreign fields. 

The designation services of Mr. and Mrs. Geddie took 
place in Prince St. Church, Pictou, November 3, 1846. 
Soon afterwards they started for their field of labor. 
Think of traveling 113 miles by coach to Halifax! 
Think of 8 days tossing on the sea from Halifax to Boston! 
Think of one hundred and seventy days from Boston to 
Honolulu, when for three weeks their little brig battled 
for life with tremendous storms at the Cape, and then, the 
voyage from Honolulu to Samoa occupying 38 days! 
They had sailed over 19,000 miles. At Samoa, they were 
detained for eight months. There Dr. and Mrs. Geddie 
left their eldest child as they could not take it to live 
among cannibals. Already they had had a taste of trial 
and hardship in their family. Dr. Geddie had left behind 
him an aged and devoted mother. Did these things quell 
his ardor or hinder his efforts? On the contrary, they 
stimulated him to push forward to reach the place of his 
chosen life-work. On the thirteenth day of July, 1848, he 
sighted Aneityum. On the following day he first set foot 
on its soil. 

The voyage, it will be seen, occupied one year and seven 
months. We can form no conception of the toil and 
weariness and danger involved in such a long, stormy, and 
dangerous voyage. Now, the New Hebrides can be 

179 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

reached from Pictou, in less than three months, in the 
enjoyment of comforts and luxuries, besides speed and 
safety, to which our first missionary was a complete 
stranger. He was just as truly the "Apostle of the New 
Hebrides" as Paul was the "Apostle of the Gentiles." 
Here Mr. Geddie began his work among a people of the 
lowest type. Before many years the entire system of 
heathenism gave way. Churches were built, schools 
established, children trained and godly homes erected. 
Aneityum became a centre from which light radiated to 
the other islands. It became a crown of glory in the 
history of missionary endeavor. 

In 1865, Dr. Geddie with his wife paid a visit to Nova 
Scotia, their only visit. They were the first "returned 
missionaries" ever welcomed by the Presbyterian churches 
in Canada. Dr. Geddie told the story of his work with 
a simplicity and pathos that could not be surpassed. The 
people never tired of his thrilling tale. He returned and 
continued his labors for six other years, till, December 14, 
1872, when, at Geelong, Australia, he passed to his reward, 
at the age of fifty-eight the pioneer missionary of the 
Presbyterian Church in Canada the founder of the 
first Canadian Mission to the heathen in a foreign land. 

Nova Scotia has many heroes and heroines on her roll of 
honor. Among these, Dr. Geddie and his devoted wife 
deserve a foremost place. Mrs. Geddie is still living at 
Melbourne, Australia, retaining her faculties and her in- 
terest in the work. She may fittingly be called the mother 
of the Mission, for she rocked the cradle of the first-born 
Nova Scotia Mission. Mrs. Geddie has two daughters, 
wives of missionaries in the New Hebrides : Mrs. Neilson, 
wife of Rev. Thos. Neilson, of Tanna, whom she had taken 
with her, a child in arms, when she left Nova Scotia; and 
Mrs. MacDonald, wife of Rev. D. MacDonald of Efate. 
Her youngest daughter, Mrs. C. G. Harrington of Halifax, 
died recently. 

180 



PICTONIANS IN FOREIGN FIELDS 

Rev. J. W. Matheson and his wife settled on Tanna, in 
1858. Mr. Matheson was born at Rogers Hill, Pictou, 
1832. He enjoyed the precious privilege of a pious ances- 
try. He began attending the grammar school at Durham, 
taught by Daniel McDonald, afterwards Inspector of 
schools for Pictou County, to prepare himself for the 
Seminary. After being accepted as a missionary to the 
New Hebrides, he was ordained in Prince St. Church, 
Pictou, November 22, 1856. Rev. James Watson, his 
pastor preached the sermon; Rev. George Walker offered 
the ordination prayer, Rev. James Bayne delivered the 
charge, and Rev. A. P. Miller addressed the people. The 
winter of 1857, he spent in Philadelphia, prosecuting 
medical studies. 

Before his departure, Mr. Matheson married Mary 
Geddie Johnston, the second child of James Johnston of 
Pictou, and born in that town, October 1837. Her mother 
was a sister of the Rev. John Geddie. Mrs. Matheson 
was one of the loveliest of women, of deep personal piety 
and admirably fitted for mission work. Both she and 
her husband entered upon their work with great earnest- 
ness. They underwent great hardships, and encountered 
perils of the gravest character. They only labored four 
years in the field. Mrs. Matheson died at the early age 
of twenty-five, the eleventh of March, 1862, and Mr. 
Matheson a few months later, at thirty years of age. 
Dr. Paton said that Tanna was often described as the 
hardest Mission field in the heathen world, but the light 
which Mr. and Mrs. Matheson kindled there was never 
wholly extinguished. 

The church in the Maritime Provinces, in 1872, sent 
forth three young men to fill the blanks made by death and 
by retirement. These were the Revs. James D. Murray, 
J. W. McKenzie and H. A. Robertson. Mr. Murray was 
born at Durham, Pictou Co., and took his literary and 
theological courses at Truro and Halifax. His first 

181 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

and only charge was in Antigonish, N. S. His heart 
was in mission work, and he was appointed as Dr. 
Geddie's successor in Aneityum. On account of his wife's 
blindness, he resigned in a few years and settled in Aus- 
tralia. Resigning this charge he went to Tennessee, U. 
S. A., where he was settled over a congregation for a time. 
Subsequently he returned again to Australia and was 
called to Moruya, where he labored with great diligence 
and success for sixteen years, until his death, July 13, 
1913. Mr. Murray was sixty-eight years of age and leaves 
a widow and one son. He was a man of great spirit and 
beloved both in the home and foreign fields. 

Rev. John W. McKenzie, D. D., and his wife were for 
a long time, honored missionaries in Efate. Mr. McKen- 
zie is a native of Green Hill. Pictou Co., the fourth of a 
family of ten children. His father, Alexander McKenzie, 
was for many years an elder in Salem Church, Green Hill, 
under the ministry of the Rev. Geo. Patterson, D. D. 
From the time he was eight years old, Mr. McKenzie 
cherished the thought of becoming a missionary, though 
he never spoke of it until he offered himself to the Foreign 
Board. He was educated at New Glasgow, Dalhousie 
College, and the Theological College, Halifax. He also 
took a short course in Medicine. Previous to entering on 
his mission work, he married Miss Amanda Bruce of 
Musquodoboit, N. S. In January, 1913, Mr. McKenzie, 
retired after forty years of faithful and fruitful service 
in the mission field. His tactfulness has meant much 
to the whole mission and his saintly character has exer- 
cised a unique influence upon Europeans as well as natives. 

Erromanga, where five missionaries were murdered, 
two of them devoured by the cannibals, is now 
a Christian Island. Rev. H. A. Robertson and 
his wife were appointed to Erromanga, the Martyr 
Isle, where their efforts have been crowned with abun- 
dant success. Mr. Robertson was born at Barney's 

182 



PICTONIANS IN FOREIGN FIELDS 

River, Pictou, in 1841. When a young man, he entered 
the employ of R. McKenzie, Pictou. His health not being 
good, and having a desire to see these beautiful isles for 
himself, he took passage to the South Pacific in the 
Dayspring, 1863. When in Melbourne, Australia, he was 
appointed agent for the New Hebrides Cotton Co., of 
Glasgow. His work was to buy the material from the 
natives and ship it to Scotland. Though accepting the 
situation for only six months, he remained over four 
years. He was familiar with the missionaries and deeply 
interested in their work. In 1868 while still on Aneityum, 
the Church of Scotland, at home, invited him to be their 
first missionary. He accepted the invitation and returned 
to Nova Scotia where he took a course of training in 
Theology and Medicine. 

In 1871 he was ordained as a foreign missionary by the 
Kirk Presbytery of Halifax, as their second missionary, 
Rev. Mr. Goodwill being the first. On the sixth of Sep- 
tember he married Christina McNeill, daughter of John 
Dawson, Little Harbor, Pictou. They sailed from Hali- 
fax, October 24, and landed at Aneityum, May 1, 1872. 
He died May, 1914, en route home on a furlough. Rev. 
John Goodwill of Antigonish, was sent out by the Kirk 
to the New Hebrides in 1871. He spent some time on 
Santo and then resigned. 

The second pioneer Pictonian in the mission field was 
the Rev. John Morton, D. D. To him belongs the credit 
of originating the Trinidad Mission, in the West Indies, 
in 1867. Mr. Morton was born at Stellarton, Pictou Co., 
December 20, 1839. His parents removed to Eraser's 
Mountain, near New Glasgow when he was quite young. 
The family, one of that good, old Scottish type of the Cot- 
ter's Saturday Night, the father an elder, belonged to Knox 
Free Church, New Glasgow, and afterwards to United 
Church. He went to Halifax in 1855, and entered the Free 
Church College, where he completed his course in 1861. 

183 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

In the summer of that year he was licensed and ordained 
to the charge of Bridgewater, N. S., where he labored with 
marked success. Some years after his settlement a throat 
trouble cqmpelled a rest. He decided to spend a few 
months in the tropics, and went to Trinidad. While 
there he became greatly impressed with the destitute 
spiritual condition of the Coolies. Returning home, he 
laid the matter before the Board, and they brought it 
before the Synod which met in New Glasgow, in 1867. 
So moved was the Synod by his appeal that on motion of 
Robert Murray, it was unanimously agreed to establish 
a mission in Trinidad. Mr. Morton offered his services 
to the Board. He was gladly accepted, and so became 
the first missionary of the Trinidad Mission. t He and his 
family sailed for the West Indies, December 1, 1867. 

Dr. Morton was a man of singular devotion. He served 
his Master with his whole heart. Next to his devotion was 
his remarkable tact and good judgment which were felt not 
only in the Mission, but in all the affairs of the Colony. 
Shortly after his ordination he married Sarah E., daugh- 
ter of the late William Silver, Halifax. Mrs. Morton 
entered with her whole heart into the work of her husband, 
and was for him a fitting help-meet. She and her four 
children survive him. One of the sons, Rev. H. H. Mor- 
ton is in charge of his father's field at Tunapuna; Rev. 
Arthur S. Morton, Ph.D., is substituting in Toronto Uni- 
versity, in Church History; Dr. William C. Morton is 
assistant Professor af Anatomy in Leeds Medical Uni- 
versity, England, and the only daughter is married to 
Rev. A. W. Thomson, Pictou. 

Scarcely had Mr. Morton settled down to his work, 
when he began appealing for another missionary. In con- 
sequence of Mr. Morton's appeals, steps were taken by 
the Board to secure a second missionary. They sent a 
call addressed to the Rev. K. J. Grant of Merigomish. 
This call was gladly accepted, and Mr. (now Dr.) Grant 

184 



PICTONIANS IN FOREIGN FIELDS 

was designated for the work, March 29, 1870. He reached 
Trinidad, with his wife and family, November 22, 1870. 
From the very commencement the missionaries gave 
special attention to the education of the young. In 1875 
John A. Macdonald, Hopewell, was sent as a missionary 
teacher, serving two years. He was followed by Mr. A. 
Campbell, McLennan's Brook, in 1880. 

Rev. Dr. Grant is a native of Pictou, born there in 
1839. His first charge was at Merigomish, N. S. He 
retired from the Trinidad mission in 1907, after thirty- 
seven years of most faithful and devoted service. He is 
now engaged in mission work among the Coolies in Van- 
couver, B. C. Dr. Grant was first married to Miss Sarah 
Geddes, Yarmouth. His second wife was Miss Copeland of 
Merigomish, N. S. A son of his, Rev. George A. Grant, is 
pastor at Black River Bridge, N. B.; another son, G. 
Geddes Grant, born in Pictou, is a leading business man 
in Port of Spain, West Indies. 

Rev. William L. Macrae was born at Abercrombie, Pictou 
Co., and was educated at Dalhousie College and Pine Hill. 
He began his work in Trinidad in 1886, and was located at 
Princestown. Here he labored most faithfully and suc- 
cessfully in missionary and educational work for nearly 
nineteen years, until his health failing him, he returned 
home. Since July 1905 he has been serving a congrega- 
tion at Golden, B. C. Mr. Macrae was first married to 
Miss Elizabeth Creelman, Stewiacke, N. S. She died in 
1889. His present wife was Miss Sadie Mitchell, Meri- 
gomish, N. S. 

Rev. A. W. Thomson was appointed missionary to 
Couva in 1890. Mr. Thomson is a son of the late Rev. 
James Thomson, and was born at Durham, Pictou Co. 
Graduating from Dalhousie University in 1885, he took 
his theological course at Princeton Seminary. For twenty 
years Mr. Thomson labored with great energy and with 
conspicuous success in the mission field. Ill health 

185 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

compelled him to resign and return to Nova Scotia. He 
is now pastor of Knox Church, Pictou, inducted there 
in 1911. His brother, Rev. William McC. Thomson, is 
pastor of Greyfriars Church, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

Pictou has sent three of her sons to do missionary work 
in far off India. Rev. Charles M. Grant, D. D., was for 
three years a missionary in India. He was sent out in 
connection with the India Mission Committee of the 
church of Scotland. While settled as a pastor in Halifax, 
he resigned at the request of Dr. Norman McLeod to 
preach to the educated natives of Calcutta, where his 
lectures were attended by hundreds of English speaking 
natives. His promising career was arrested by a severe 
illness, whereupon he was ordered home. A year later he 
accepted a call to Glasgow, Scotland, and then to Dundee. 
The Rev. Dr. Grant is a Pictonian, a brother of the late 
Principal Grant. He retired from active service a few 
years ago and makes his home in Dundee. 

Rev. Robert C. Murray was sent to India in 1885 by the 
Western section of the Church St. Paul's Church, Mon- 
treal, undertaking his support. Mr. Murray was a son 
of Hugh Murray and was born in Cariboo, Pictou Co., 
educated in Arts and Theology at Queen's University, 
Ontario. He graduated in the spring of 1885. In the 
fall of that year he began his work in Ujjain the oldest 
city in India, with rare tact and zeal. A year later, Miss 
Charlotte Wilson, daughter of the late Charles Wilson, 
Pictou, joined him and they were married. In less than 
a year Mrs. Murray died and four months later Mr. 
Murray himself died suddenly of sun stroke. "Lovely 
and pleasant were they in their lives, and in death they 
were not divided." Kenneth G. MacKay, B. S. A., Toronto 
Univ., was sent by the Canadian Church, 1906 to Central 
India to instruct the natives in agricultural and industrial 
work. He resigned in 1912, and returned to Pictou, his 
native place. Rev. William R. McKay is stationed at 

186 




1 A. W. THOMSON 

2 L. L. YOUNG 

3 W. R. MCKAY 



GROUP OF FOREIGN MISSIONARIES 

4 W. L. MACRAE 

5 ROBT. C. MURRAY 

6 MRS. ROBT. C. MURRAY 



GEORGE M. Ross 
D. M. COCK 



PICTONIANS IN FOREIGN FIELDS 

Kongmoon, South China. Mr. McKay was first sent to 
Macao, in 1902, and was the first missionary located there. 
He devotes most of his time to educational work. He was 
born in Springville, Pictou Co., and is a son of Mr. Joseph 
McKay, an elder in the Springville Presbyterian Church. 
He graduated from Dalhousie College in 1896, taking a 
B. D. degree from Princeton Seminary, in 1901. For 
three years previous to his departure for China, he held 
a pastorate at Noel and Kennetcook. He married Miss 
Mary O'Brien, B. Sc., Noel, N. S. Knox Church, Regina, 
supports them. 

Rev. George M. Ross, B. A., son of Alexander Ross, 
was born at Blue Mountain, Pictou, and studied theology 
at Pine Hill, where he graduated in 1901. He married, 
Minnie Robertson of Ontario. He was sent as a mission- 
ary to North Honan, China, in 1903, where he is now labor- 
ing. He is supported by St. John's Church, Toronto. 

Rev. Luther L. Young is Pictou's representative in 
Korea. He went out in 1906 and is settled in Ham Heung. 
He was born at Millsville, Pictou Co., graduated from 
Dalhousie University in 1903, and three years later from 
Pine Hill. He is married to Catherine F. Mair, B. A., 
Campbelltown, N. B. The first Presbyterian Church, 
New Glasgow supports Mr. and Mrs. Young. 

Rev. D. G. Cock, a descendant of Rev. Daniel Cock the 
first settled minister of Truro, was appointed missionary 
to Mhow, Central India. He was born in the West River 
Valley, and graduated from Pine Hill in 1899. Soon 
after, he was sent as an ordained missionary to Alaska 
where he spent three years. On the eve of his departure 
as missionary to India in 1902, he was married to a college 
class-mate, Miss Ella Maxwell, Halifax, N. S. 

So far as known, none of Pictou's fair daughters have 
entered the ministerial or legal professions or ventured 
far into the fields of literature and science. They have 
devoted their lives to the humbler yet equally important 

187 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

spheres of the home and the school-room. The county 
has been the home of the very best type of capable and 
self-sacrificing mothers and wives. Much of its fame and 
influence is due to them. Many families have furnished 
teachers for the public schools some families as many 
as half a dozen. For that matter, nearly every man in 
the professional lists in this book, at one time or another, 
taught school ; and as the students from the Academy and 
College went out into the country districts to teach in the 
summer, they had much to do with making Pictou the 
literary and educational centre which it is. 

A few Pictou women have studied medicine, and over a 
dozen have gone to be missionaries and teachers in foreign 
lands, and have been faithful and fruitful workers for the 
Master. The first to go was Miss Mary B. McKay, a 
daughter of Mr. James McKay, elder, Stellarton, N. S. 
She was sent by the Western section of the Church to 
Central India, in 1888. She was only a short time in the 
field when she was married to Rev. John Buchanan, M. D., 
of Ontario. Mrs. Buchanan is a graduate of Mt. Allison 
Ladies' College, Sackville, N. B., and of the Ladies' Med- 
ical College, Toronto. She is now living in Amkhut, 
Central India, where she and her husband are success- 
fully engaged in missionary and medical work among 
the Bhils. 

Mrs. Elizabeth M. Butler went to India as an officer of 
the Salvation Army, in 1898, but in a few years joined the 
Friend's Foreign Missionary Association of England with 
her husband, the late Edward J. Butler. Altogether she 
has given eighteen years of active service with Sohagpur 
as a centre. Mrs. Butler is a daughter of the late James 
McLaren, Wentworth Grant, Pictou Co. 

Cariboo, Pictou Co., has sent two missionaries from the 
same house to labor in India Misses Jemima and Mary 
McKenzie. In 1904, Jemima McKenzie was appointed, 
under the Women's Union Missionary Society of America, 

188 











8 




- 



MISSIONARIES IN THE FOREIGN FIELD 

1 JESSIE C. FRASER 4 MRS. A. A. SMITH 7 

2 MRS. ELIZABETH McL. BUTLER 5 MRS. JOHN BUCHANAN 8 

3 MRS. JOHN N. CULVER 6 JEMIMA MCKENZIE 9 



MARY S. HERDMAN 
BESSIE McCuNN 
ANN-IE YOUNG 



PICTONIANS IN FOREIGN FIELDS 

to medical work in Cawnpore, India. Two years later she 
went to Fatephur where she had charge of a large hos- 
pital which she was largely instrumental in building, and 
of which she is now in full charge. In 1905, her sister, 
Mary McKenzie, was appointed to succeed her in Cawn- 
pore where for nearly six years she engaged in Medical 
and Bible work. In 1911 she was married to Rev. A. A. 
Smith, Verschoyle, Ont. The two sisters are graduates 
of Dalhousie University and the Medical School, Halifax, 
and are highly esteemed both for their work and their 
personal qualities. 

From the Millsville district, Pictou Co., three young 
women have given their lives to the cause of missions. 
Miss Annie Young, a sister of Rev. L. L. Young, was 
settled at Wan Chi, Central China, in 1897. She was 
educated at Pictou Academy and in the Christian Alliance 
Institute, New York City, under whose auspices she is now 
laboring. Miss Jennie Fraser, also of Millsville, sailed for 
India in 1898. She has charge of a mission station at 
Shantipur. Her sister, Agnes Fraser, (now Mrs. John N. 
Culver, a missionary from the U. S. A.), went to India in 
1904 and is located in Dholka, India. They were both 
trained for missionary work in the Christian Alliance 
School, at Nyack, N. Y., and are working under its Board. 

Miss Mary S. Herdman, daughter of the late Rev. An- 
drew Herdman, Pictou, is doing missionary and educational 
work in Dhar, Central India. She was first sent out to 
Northern India in 1903 by the Church of England, but for 
the last dozen years she has been under the control of the 
Canadian Church and is supported by the W. M. F. 
Society, Toronto. She helps in the Dispensary, and acts 
as Bible teacher to women. 

Another clergyman's daughter, Miss Bessie McCunn, 
daughter of the late Rev. R. McCurm, River John, is 
laboring in Jhansi, India. She was first appointed as 
teacher to Princestown, Trinidad in 1900, and spent five 

189 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

years there. Afterwards she attended the Ewart Mis- 
sionary Training School Toronto, and while there was 
appointed by the Women's Union Missionary Society, 
N. Y., to go to India. Her work includes Hospital and 
Zenana work, and the superintending of day and Sunday 
schools. 

Miss Maud M. Rogers, daughter of Mr. B. D. Rogers, 
Stellarton, was sent out, in 1909, by the Canadian Church 
and is now laboring in Song Jin, Korea. She took a course 
in Domestic Science in Boston. 

Priscilla McDonald, daughter of Mr. John McL. Mc- 
Donald, Durham, Pictou, (now the wife of Rev. Willard 
S. Tedford) is in the mission field in Rayagadda, India. 
Mrs. Bessie A. Robb, wife of Rev. A. F. Robb, Korea, is 
a daughter of Rev. Robert Gumming, D. D., Westville, 
N. S. They were appointed to Wonsan in 1901, and are 
supported by St. Paul's Church, Fredericton, N. B. 
Miss Jenny Hazel Kirk, daughter of J. H. Kirk, East 
River St. Mary's, Pictou Co., was appointed by the Foreign 
Mission Board of the Maritime Synod to Wonsan, Korea. 
She sailed December 5, 1913, from Vancouver, B. C. 
A daughter of William Cameron, County Clerk, Pictou, 
Christina Cameron, was married to Rev. Fred Paton, son 
of Rev. John Paton, D. D., and was engaged in mission 
work with her husband in Malekula, New Hebrides. She 
died April, 1914. 

It will thus be seen that Pictou County has made nota- 
ble contributions to the cause of Missions. Great honor 
has fallen to her in sending forth such a noble band of men 
and women to publish the message of the King. 



190 



CHAPTER IX 
THE PRESS AND PRINTERS OF PICTOU 

THE first newspaper published in Canada was the 
Halifax Gazette. It was published by John Bushnell, 
a partner of Bartholomew Green. The first number ap- 
peared on Monday, March 25, 1752. Mr Green was a 
son of Bartholomew Green who printed the first newspaper 
in America the Boston News Letter. He set up the first 
printing press in the Dominion of Canada, at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia. The printing press was thus one of New 
England's contributions to Nova Scotia. The Gazette 
has been published continuously ever since, and still makes 
its appearance regularly each week as the Nova Scotia 
Royal Gazette. It is in all probability the oldest news- 
paper published in America. 

The first printing press in Pictou was what was known 
as the Weir Durham Press. It belonged to the Synod of 
the Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia. Soon after that 
body was formed, in 1817, it resolved to take collections 
for the purchase of a printing press to be employed in 
giving religious intelligence to the people. After some 
progress in this, a lady in Britain, Mrs. Weir Durham, 
hearing of it made them a present of a press which thence- 
forward was known by her name. Synod placed it in the 
Academy at Pictou, and in the early days was stationed 
in the library. It was a small press and would scarcely 
print a larger sheet than foolscap. It was well constructed 
and very convenient for small jobs. When Dr. Geddie 
was leaving Nova Scotia to go to the South Seas he needed 
a printing press and this one having been, for sometime 
unused, but being still in good condition, the Synod gave 
it to him to be employed in his work. He took it to the 
South Seas and set it up in the island of Aneityum 

191 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

where it was used in the early stages of the mission, 
printing primers and such other small works, in the lan- 
guage of the natives. Some years later a larger press was 
sent out from Britain, and the old one was transferred to 
the new mission field of Rev. G. N. Gordon, in 1856, on 
Erromanga, where it was used for the same purpose as in 
the other mission field. What has since become of it is 
not known. 

The first printing establishment properly, so called, in 
Pictou, was set up in 1827 by J. S. Cunnabell of Halifax 
and William Milne, a Scotchman, recently from Aberdeen. 
The former was a practical printer but the latter was not. 
The partnership was dissolved in a few months and for 
some years Mr. Milne was the sole owner. On leaving 
Pictou he went to Providence, R. I., where some of his 
sons followed their father's trade. 

A prospectus was issued in August 1827, signed by 
William Milne & Co., giving notice of intention to publish 
a paper to be called the "Colonial Patriot," and requesting 
the support of all interested in local affairs and in sound 
principles and politics. After much discussion on the 
part of its promoters the name of "The Pictou Patriot" 
was thought to be most suitable. Dr. McCulloch sug- 
gested the name "Colonial Patriot," which was adopted, 
a name which was fully justified by its broad sympathies. 
Nearly four months later, on Friday morning. December 7, 
the first number was issued. It consisted of eight pages 
of three columns each, and measured ten inches by twelve. 
It was strong in its advocacy of the policy of the Academy. 
This was the first native newspaper outside of Halifax. 
Shelburne had had three before 1800, but these were 
transplanted from the American colonies and soon ceased 
publication. The principles of the paper and the vigor and 
independence of the editor soon brought it into public notice. 

The Patriot sounded the first note of Responsible Gov- 
ernment in the British North American colonies. Though 

192 



PRESS AND PRINTERS OF PICTOU 

opinions favorable to reform were widely current there was 
as yet no organ which openly avowed reformed sentiments. 
The Halifax papers were too near the center of things to 
speak with any insistence on the great questions at issue. 
It was in the country that the great body of reform senti- 
ment existed and where, no doubt, grievances were most 
felt. And it was from that quarter that reform was first 
to find a voice in its behalf through that powerful agency 
of enlightenment, the press. Pictou had the honor of estab- 
lishing that organ, the predecessor of the reformed Nova 
Scotian, which began as that carried on, the work of prop- 
agating those ideas of liberty, equality and justice in our 
Provincial Government, which at length prevailed by sheer 
force of their inherent truth. It required an editor with 
ideas and convictions to do this work. Such an one was 
found in Jotham Blanchard. He was a New Englander 
by birth and no doubt was familiar with the freedom 
under republican institutions in the country of his birth. 
Any such ideas which he may have possessed would not 
be lessened while under the influence of Dr. McCulloch. 
In Blanchard the times found the man to do work that 
sorely needed to be done. He brought to his task keen 
intelligence, literary skill and power of argument, great 
perseverance, and a great zeal which all too early con- 
sumed his powers of body and mind, and cut short a career 
which gave every promise of greatness. From the office 
of the Patriot was issued for a time a paper for youth 
called the Juvenile Entertainer. It is not known how 
long it was published, but it served a good purpose at 
a time when children's books were few. 

Among those trained in the Patriot office two deserve 
particular notice -Alexander Lawson and John Stiles. 
Mr. Lawson was a native of New Glasgow, and was em- 
ployed on the Patriot as an apprentice from its establish- 
ment to its discontinuance. He then went to Yarmouth 
where he established the Yarmouth Herald, the first 

193 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

successful venture in newspaper printing in the Western 
part of the Province. With the exception of a short interval 
he conducted it for forty seven years. It is one of the 
oldest papers in the Province, and is now conducted by his 
son J. Murray Lawson. 

In the year 1831, Pictou's second paper made its ap- 
pearance. It was called the Pictou Observer. In politics 
it was opposed to the reform movement, and antagonistic 
to Dr. McCulloch's policy for the Academy. It was 
published by William Gossip. Rev. K. J. McKenzie, a 
Scottish Kirkman, was its editor. The Observer was not 
a success financially, and after a time it was discontinued. 
It was resuscitated by Roderick McDonald, a native of 
Scotland, who had been teaching the lower branches in 
Pictou Academy. The second attempt to establish the 
Observer proved futile after a year's effort, for we read 
that in 1843 it was once more revived by Mr. McCou- 
bray of St. Johns, Newfoundland, with Martin I. Wilkins, 
a prominent lawyer and legislator, as editor, but it again 
became defunct. In this office was trained Alpin Grant. 
Born a mile back of the town in 1848, he bought from 
Gossip and Coade the old Halifax Times and commenced 
the publication in its place, of the British Colonist which 
he conducted through its whole course. He was also for 
sometime Queen's printer, and amassed a small fortune by 
printing in Nova Scotia, which few other men have done. 

The next paper published in Pictou was "The Bee," a 
weekly journal devoted to politics, literature and agricul- 
ture. It was conducted by James Dawson, father of the 
late Sir J. William Dawson who purchased the plant of the 
old Patriot. The first number appeared May 27, 1835. 
The general character of its contents was similar to that 
of its predecessors. In the spring of 1838 John Stiles issued 
a prospectus of a new paper to be called "The Mechanic 
and Farmer." Mr. Stiles was brought up near Pictou, his 
father who had come originally from Cornwallis, settled 

194 






vv * 

"* 



^Ir 






GROUP OF MEN' IX PUBLIC LIFE 

1 FREDERIC YORSTON 4 R M. MACGREGOR 

2 PETER M. MACDONAI.D 5 HON. J. W. CARMICHAEL 

3 WILLIAM MACDONAI.O 6 HON. ADAM. C. BELL 



7 DAVID POTTIXGER 

g ROBERT MCCONNELI 

9 R. H. MACKAY 

10 JOHN U. Ross 



PRESS AND PRINTERS OF PICTOU 

near Scotch Hill, where he had a mill. Mr. Dawson, 
thinking there was not room for two papers in Pictou, 
agreed to sell his establishment to Mr. Stiles ; and the Bee 
was discontinued in the month of May of that year. The 
Mechanic and Farmer was immediately announced in its 
stead, and was first issued on May 23, 1838. Mr. Stiles 
made his paper a success financially, and gave great 
stimulus to farmers in the amount of information circu- 
lated on agricultural subjects. In 1842 a religious paper 
in connection with the Presbyterian Church of Nova 
Scotia was established in Pictou under the name, Pres- 
byterian Banner. It was edited by the Rev. James Ross ; 
printed by Mr. Stiles, and continued for a little over one 
year. 

On October 4, 1843, "The Mechanic and Farmer" 
and "The Banner" were merged in "The Eastern 
Chronicle" which is still issued at New Glasgow. The 
plant was purchased from Mr. Stiles by the Rev. 
George Patterson and Mr. J. L. Geldert, and was con- 
ducted by them for some time. Mr. Stiles went to Wash- 
ington and secured a good position in the Pension Office 
there, where he died some twenty years ago. Among 
those employed in the office may be mentioned Donald 
Gunn of Hopewell who afterward conducted a printing 
establishment in Boston; Edward M. Macdonald, after- 
wards M. P. for Lunenburg, a native of West River, 
who at the close of 1846 bought out the establishment, 
and in January 1847, took the management of the paper 
into his own hands. He continued to conduct the paper 
until appointed Queen's printer when he removed to Hali- 
fax and there established the Halifax Citizen with Hon. 
William Garvie. His brother, John D. Macdonald, who 
had been for sometime employed in the office, took charge 
of the Eastern Chronicle after his withdrawal. 

Up to about the year 1868, newspaper publication in the 
county was confined to the town of Pictou. Then the 

195 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Eastern Chronicle was removed to New Glasgow, with 
Robert McConnell and W. B. Alley, the latter for thirty 
years proprietor Colchester Sun, of Truro, in charge. Mr. 
McConnell was a Pictou man and a veteran journalist. 
He edited the Eastern Chronicle for ten years ; served on 
the editorial staff of the Halifax Morning Chronicle; was 
publisher of the Truro Guardian; then editor of the 
Moncton Transcript; for a time Editor-in-chief of the 
Montreal Herald. Returning to Halifax in 1892. he be- 
came the managing editor of the Morning Chronicle. 
Some years later he retired from active journalism and 
was appointed to a position in the Finance Department 
at Ottawa, which he held until his death in 1909. He was 
born at Meadowville, in 1842, and was educated at Dur- 
ham Grammar school and the Normal school, Charlotte- 
town. While in the latter place, he acquired a knowledge 
of printing, and became from that time a "newspaper 
man." He was prominently identified with the Presby- 
terian church and active in the Sunday school and Tem- 
perance cause. His second son, J. Miller McConnell, is 
financial editor on the Montreal Daily Star. He was born 
in New Glasgow in 1870 and gained his early experience 
in newspaper work on the Eastern Chronicle. In 1887 he 
joined the staff of the Montreal Herald and ten years later 
went to the Montreal Star with which he has ever since 
been connected. 

Later on the Eastern Chronicle passed into the hands of 
Daniel Logan, now a prominent journalist in Hawaii. 
Mr. Logan is a Scotsburn boy. He began his newspaper 
career in the office of the Eastern Chronicle in 1867. In 
1877 he became editor and proprietor. In 1884 he went to 
Honolulu where for more than a quarter of a century he 
has been engaged in journalism and literary work and has 
justly earned the title "Nestor of the Press." After Mr. 
Logan's departure the Eastern Chronicle passed into the 
hands of S. M. MacKenzie, who published it as a 

196 



PRESS AND PRINTERS OF PICTOU 

semi-weekly for a number of years. In 1881 he disposed 
of it to a company with James A. Fraser as editor and 
manager. 

On November 2, 1858, the Colonial Standard was 
established in Pictou town in succession to the Observer 
as the organ of the Conservative party. It was printed on 
a new press and with new type. Hon. S. H. Holmes of 
Halifax, was its editor and proprietor for over 20 years. 
The Standard has had a chequered history. For a num- 
ber of years it ceased publication, but is now issued from 
the "News" office. 

In 1880 W. D. Stewart started the Plain Dealer in New 
Glasgow. He conducted it for two years as editor and pro- 
prietor. The Rev.E. Scott, D.D., while pastor of the United 
Church, New Glasgow, began the publication of the Mari- 
time Presbyterian, a religious monthly devoted to the in- 
terests of the church. It continued for a number of years 
but was finally merged in the Presbyterian Record of 
which Dr. Scott is the editor. It was in 1881 that the 
Liberals of Pictou decided that they should have a mouth 
piece to replace the Eastern Chronicle and the Pictou 
News appeared. The News prospered for a few years 
and gained a wide circulation. C. D. Macdonald was the 
editorial writer until 1889. Then came the Trades Jour- 
nal at Stellarton, now the Mining Record, conducted by 
Hon. R. Drummond. 

Next to enter the field, in 1889, was the Enterprise of 
New Glasgow. It was printed for a time in the Standard 
office in Pictou by Mr. Albert Dennis who was then pub- 
lisher of the Standard. In 1890 Allan P. Douglas 
joined the paper and is now editor and proprietor. From 
Westville the next report of a newspaper came. R. A. 
Macdonald there began in 1895 the publication of the 
Free Lance, as the organ of the Orangemen. It appeared 
as such for a year or two only, when it became the pro- 
perty of J. W. H. Sutherland. 

197 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Reverting to the town of Pictou, the year 1890 witnessed 
the destruction of the Standard's office building and plant 
by fire; and as the gentleman who then owned the News 
had little in common with the town and county he sold 
to the Standard the News plant, and the latter paper 
ceased publication. This left Pictou with but one paper, 
till in 1893 the Pictou Advocate was established with John 
D. Macdonald son of John D. Macdonald, senior, as pro- 
prietor. The New Glasgow News, a daily, was first 
published in the fall of 1912. 

Of the other periodicals published in this county, the 
only ones worthy of special notice are the monthly organs 
of the different religious bodies. The Missionary Register, 
1850 to 1857, was the first missionary paper published in 
the Lower Provinces. This was merged with a monthly 
magazine called the Christian Instructor and was edited 
by the Rev. George Patterson, 1855 to 1860. The Record 
of the Church of Scotland was commenced in January, 
1854, and during the greater part of the time was pub- 
lished in the office of the Colonial Standard. 

Many Pictonians have been connected with the press 
elsewhere and one of the best known was George Munro, 
who was born at West River, 1825. At the age of twelve 
he entered the office of the Observer, Pictou, to learn the 
printing business. He only served two years when he 
became a student in the New Glasgow schools. He at- 
tended Pictou Academy for three years and for some years 
taught school in the county. His reputation as a teacher 
led to his being appointed head master of the Free Church 
Academy, Halifax, in 1850, where he continued until 1856. 
In that year he removed to New York City where he soon 
became a successful publisher of popular books and periodi- 
cals. He was engaged in the publishing business for nearly 
forty years and became a millionaire. 

The Munro Publishing house was known everywhere in 
the United States and Canada. In 1867, he began the 

198 



PRESS AND PRINTERS OF PICTOU 

publication of the Seaside Library which contained the 
best fiction, essays and history. It provided good and 
cheap reading for the masses and it is impossible to calcu- 
late the great educational value of those publications, for 
they reached millions of readers. Mr. Munro was a dis- 
criminating editor and a man of excellent literary judg- 
ment. He was a warm supporter of higher education. 
He never ceased to be interested in his native land, espe- 
cially in its educational institutions. The main recipient 
of his bounty, was Dalhousie College, in which he endowed 
successively five Professorial chairs besides providing for 
scholarships and exhibitions, giving in all to the amount 
of nearly half a million dollars. While a teacher in the Free 
Church College, Halifax, he managed to complete the regular 
course in Theology although he never entered the ministry. 
Mr. Munro died April 24, 1896, in the seventy-eighth year 
of his age. His whole life was marked by industry and 
uprightness. Mrs. Munro was a sister of Rev. Dr. 
Forrest, Halifax. 

His brother Norman L. Munro was also a successful 
publisher of books and papers in New York City. Mr. 
Munro was born at Millbrook, Pictou Co., April 8, 1844. 
He went to New York in 1866, and engaged in publishing 
business under the name of the Munro Publishing Co. He 
died on February 24, 1894. 

W. E. Maclellan, Barrister, was for a number of years 
managing editor and chief editorial writer of the Winnipeg 
Free Press. From 1900 to 1905 he was Editor-in-chief, of 
the Morning Chronicle, Halifax, N. S. Mr. Maclellan was 
born at Durham, Pictou Co., 1855. He was educated at 
Pictou Academy and Dalhousie College, and received the 
degree of Bachelor of Laws from the University of Halifax. 
He was called to the Bar, 1880. For several years he was 
Inspector of schools for the District of Pictou and South 
Colchester. In 1909, he won a prize for the best essay on 
Immigration. He has written many short stories and 

199 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

literary articles for leading American publications. He 
entered the Dominion Public Service, as Post Office In- 
spector for Nova Scotia, in 1905. Maclellan was a bril- 
liant editorial writer, and is today a frequent and valued 
contributor to the magazines and public press. He mar- 
ried Margaret J. Mackenzie of Pictou and is a brother 
of Principal Maclellan of the Pictou Academy. 

The Rev. P. M. Macdonald, M. A., is on the editorial 
staff of the Westminster Company, Toronto and has 
written a number of stories, essays and poems for the 
magazines and the religious press. For several years he 
wrote for the "Presbyterian," Toronto, under the name 
of "Donal Bhain." Mr. Macdonald is a native of Pictou. 
He graduated from Dalhousie University, 1894; and from 
the Presbyterian College, Halifax, 1896. He was Pastor 
of St. Paul's Church, Truro, from 1896 to 1904; since 
then until 1913 Pastor of Cowan Avenue Church, 
Toronto. He married Miss Christina Logan of Pictou. 

Frederic Yorston, B. A. (Dalhousie & Harvard) is the 
managing Editor of the Montreal Standard, a high-class 
weekly published in that city. Mr. Yorston was born in 
Pictou town and after a thorough course of study at home 
and abroad, entered Canadian Journalism, taking a posi- 
tion on Montreal Daily Star. When the Standard was 
started he took position of Managing Editor. He is 
now President of the Montreal Publishing Company. 
Alvin F. Macdonald, editor of the Morning Chronicle, 
Halifax; Thomas M. Fraser of the Free Press, Saskatoon, 
Sask., and Albert E. Crockett, B. L. of the Post-Express, 
Rochester, N. Y., are Hopewell boys. The editor of the 
Wesleyan, the organ of the Methodist Church published in 
Truro, N. S., is the Rev. D. W. Johnson, D. D., of River 
John. 

In the history of the press in Pictou there is much in 
this brief review of which Pictonians may well be proud. 
No place outside of Halifax has so long maintained efficient 

200 



PRESS AND PRINTERS OF PICTOU 

newspapers, or displayed so much journalistic talent in 
the discussion of the public questions of the day. The 
press of Pictou has generally been on the side of morality 
and religion. The general character of the community 
may have been the cause of this, but it is equally true, 
that the press has had very much to do with the moulding 
and the making of the character of the people. Especially 
is this true at the beginning of her history. The press of 
those early days fulfilled its educative mission to an even 
greater extent than it does now, for it was then one of a 
few such agencies, while now it is merely one of many. 
The Patriot and its successors had much to do with the 
moulding of public opinion for popular rights and reform 
and for the final triumph of the Pictou Academy. 



201 



CHAPTER X 
PICTOU IN POLITICS 

THE first election in Pictou County was held in 1799. 
These were the days of irresponsible Government, 
when an autocratic Executive at Halifax governed the 
Province, as they saw fit, and generally without regard to 
the just claims of the outlying settlements. It was 
natural, therefore, that the Scotsmen of Pictou should be 
strong in protest against this form of government, and 
when the opportunity was formally offered them they 
expressed themselves as strongly opposed to it. 

At this time, the counties of Pictou, Colchester and 
Halifax were one for Electoral purposes, and were desig- 
nated "Halifax" County. Out of the four candidates 
allotted to the county of Halifax, Pictou returned two, 
W. Cottman Tonge, and Edward Mortimer in opposition 
to the ruling element at Halifax. Mr. Tonge is said to 
have been a man of great independence, and fearless in 
asserting the rights of the people. In 1806, Colchester 
and Pictou again overruled Halifax by electing Edward 
Mortimer and S. G. W. Archibald of Truro. Edward 
Mortimer was of Scottish descent. He settled in Pictou 
town where he became a prominent merchant and shipper. 
Because of his wealth and influence he was sometimes 
styled "the King of Pictou." For over twenty years he 
represented the people in the General Assembly of the 
Province. Political seed was apparently sown in a fruitful 
field, and the men of Pictou have ever since taken the deep- 
est and most intelligent interest in public affairs. Through 
worthy representatives they have made their influence 
strongly felt on the floors of successive Parliaments and 
Legislature. 

The outstanding question in Pictou's early politics, and 
the one which contributed to a greater degree than any 

203 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

other in causing party strife, was the unfortunate con- 
troversy, lasting more than twenty years, over Pictou 
Academy's claims for Government aid, on lines similar to 
that accorded to King's College, Windsor, which was the 
special care of the Council of Twelve. Edward Mortimer, 
George Smith and Jotham Blanchard were successively 
the men who championed the cause of the Academy. In 
its earlier stages, the quarrel was ecclesiastical, as well as 
political, and intense feelings were aroused. Jotham 
Blanchard was elected in 1830 to the Assembly at Halifax. 
This was the year of the "big election," concerning which 
many stories of strife, bloodshed, and even death are told. 
Hon. J. W. Carmichael describes the famous election of 
1830, when "Kirk" and "Antiburgher" were the war cries. 
Elections were not held then as now in one day. That 
one occupied three weeks, commencing in Halifax, ad- 
journing to Truro, and then to Pictou, a week in each, 
the excitement increasing as the contest proceeded. From 
Truro came accounts of bands of electors marching in 
from Stewiacke, Londonderry and Tatamagouche with 
pipes playing, flags flying, and forming in a body around 
Court House Square. 

The battle rolled on to Pictou and when Highlander met 
Lowlander then came the tug of war. A regular plan of 
campaign was marked out. On Monday, the Kirk men 
took possession of the town and drove the Antiburghers 
before them like leaves before the blast. The Antiburgher 
leaders took counsel with one another and orders were 
issued. Messengers sped over hills and dales; and "Anti- 
burghers to the rescue," was the cry. From East and 
West and Middle River came in the detachments, and 
revived the drooping spirits of their party. The college 
was guarded. A body-guard was stationed in Blanchard's 
House. On Wednesday night a fierce and possibly fatal 
contest was prevented, solely by the interposition of Dr. 
McCulloch, who placed himself between the contending 

204 









1 CH\S. E. TANNER 

2 EVAN KENNEDY, M. D. 

3 GRAHAM FRASER 



MEN IN PROFESSIONAL AND PUBLIC LIFE 

4 G. FORREST McKAY 7 GEORGE MUNRO 

5 E. M. MACDONALD, M. P. 8 COL. HENRY LIPPINCOTT, M D. 

6 HON. A. M. MACKAY 9 THOMAS CANTLEY 
10 A. W. H. LINDSAY, M. D. 



PICTOU IN POLITICS 

parties just as their columns were coming into conflict; 
and prevailed on both to retire. And so passed away the 
week a week eventful in the history of Pictou, and of 
Nova Scotia. It was decidedly the most exciting election 
ever held in the Province. The bitter feelings engendered 
in that strife have long passed away. There are now few, 
very few, remaining who can even call them to recollection. 

Joseph Howe followed the polling to Pictou and reported 
the events there in the interest of his paper, the "Nova 
Scotian." Howe at that time was attached to the Party 
of Privilege and afterwards said that it was the impres- 
sions made upon him by Blanchard and the other Pictou 
reformers that turned his mind towards the popular side, 
as he expressed it, "those Pictou scribblers converted 
me." 

Next came the agitation for Responsible Government, 
and Pictou was the centre of the movement. Jotham 
Blanchard was the first public man in the Province, by 
voice and pen to press for Responsible Government, as 
we have it today. This he did through the columns of 
the Colonial Patriot and before the Home Government in 
1831 when he went across to plead for justice to Pictou 
Academy. In 1836 the district of Pictou was established 
as a separate county. By that act, it received two repre- 
sentatives for the County and one for the township of 
Pictou. The first election under the new plan took place 
that year, when by a compromise between the parties, 
George Smith, a Liberal and an upholder of responsible 
government, and John Holmes, a Tory and openly opposed 
to the new order of things, were chosen. After a contest 
Henry Hatton was elected to represent the township. 

In 1838 Thomas Dickson succeeded George Smith, the 
latter* being elevated to the Legislative Council. From 
1840-1843 Holmes, Henry Blackadar, and Hatton were the 
representatives. The next four years, Holmes and George 
R. Young represented the County and Blackadar the 

205 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

township. From 1847-1851 the members were Young, 
Andrew Robertson and Blackadar. George R. Young was 
a member without portfolio of the first real Reform Gov- 
ernment that came into power after the election of 1847. 
In 1851 the Liberals lost the County and for four years 
the representatives were Holmes, Robert Murray and 
Martin I. Wilkins. 

Mr. Holmes was one of the earliest settlers on the 
East River of Pictou. He came from Scotland when 
only eleven years of age. By his industry, intelligence and 
public spirit he won the confidence of the people and for 
many years represented them in Parliament. In 1858, he 
was appointed a member of the Legislative Council and 
in 1867 to the Senate of Canada. He died in 1876, aged 
87 years. 

In 1855 Captain George McKenzie and A. C. McDonald 
were elected for the County and Wilkins again for the 
township. Mr. McDonald was the first son of the soil 
to win the confidence of the electors of Pictou. He repre- 
sented the County in the Nova Scotia Legislature, in the 
Liberal interest, for eight years, and was Speaker of the 
House of Assembly before Confederation. Captain Mc- 
Kenzie was one of the old school politicians and a leading 
man in the county. For eight years he represented it in 
the Liberal interest. Mr. Wilkins, though not a native of 
the county, was long identified with it. He went against 
his party at Confederation and was elected in 1867 on the 
Liberal ticket, becoming Attorney General in Mr. Annand's 
Government. In 1859 the County was divided into two 
districts, Eastern and Western. From 1859 to 1863 Cap- 
tain George McKenzie and James McDonald represented 
the Eastern district and A. C. McDonald and R. P. 
Grant, Western. From 1863 to 1867, the Eastern district 
was represented by James McDonald and James Fraser, 
(Downie), and the Western district by Alexander McKay 
and Donald Fraser. 

206 



PICTOU IN POLITICS 

After confederation, in 1867, the Dominion Parliament 
was established and met at Ottawa, with one representative 
from Pictou County. An additional member in the Local 
House was at this time given to the county. Hiram 
Blanchard, a son of Pictou, who represented Inverness 
County from 1857 to 1867 was sworn in on July 4, 1867 
as the first Premier of Nova Scotia after Confederation, 
holding the portfolio of Attorney General. He was with- 
out mandate from the people and his stay in office was 
brief, for at the general election which took place four 
months later, September 17, 1867, he was utterly defeated, 
only two seats being carried for the Government, his own, 
and Henry G. Pineo for Cumberland County. Mr. 
Blanchard was unseated at the election in 1867 and re- 
mained in private life until the general election, 1871, 
when he was again returned by Inverness and became 
leader of the opposition in the Provincial House until his 
death in 1874. 

In 1867, Pictou elected to the Local House three 
Liberals Dr. George Murray, R. S. Copeland and 
Martin I. Wilkins. In 1871, the pendulum swung back 
and Simon H. Holmes, Alexander McKay, and Hugh J. 
Cameron, were elected, and again in 1874. In 1878 Simon 
H. Holmes, Alexander McKay and Adam C. Bell, were 
chosen by the people. In 1878 Simon H. Holmes became 
the fourth Premier of the Province, being leader of the 
Government for four years. During his administration, 
several laws and measures of great benefit to the Province, 
were passed. In May, 1882, Mr. Holmes retired from 
politics to accept the office of Prothonotary for the Supreme 
Court at Halifax, which office he still holds. 

Upon the retirement of Mr. Holmes, J. S. D. Thomson 
became Premier and Adam C. Bell, Provincial Secretary. 
In an appeal made to the country, three months later, the 
Government was defeated, although Mr. Bell, with Robert 
Hockin and Dr. C. H. Munro were elected for Pictou. In 

207 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

1886, Bell and Munro were again elected with Jeffrey 
McColl, New Glasgow, the first Liberal elected in Pictou 
for nineteen years. Mr. Bell resigned in 1887, and ran for 
a seat in the Federal House, but was defeated. His place 
in the Legislature was taken by William Cameron, who 
was elected by acclamation, and again returned by popular 
vote in 1890 and 1894. From 1890 to 1894, Alexander 
Grant and James D. McGregor, with William Cameron, 
represented the county. 

James D. McGregor, New Glasgow, entered public 
life in 1890, and served for four years in the House of 
Assembly. He was returned again in 1897. In 1900 he 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the Commons. In 
1903 he was called to the Senate, and in 1910 succeeded 
another Pictonian, the Hon. D. C. Fraser, in the office of 
Lieutenant Governor of the Province. Mr. McGregor is 
a grandson of the Rev. Dr. McGregor, and senior partner in 
the firm of R. McGregor & Sons. He has long been promi- 
nent in Church and State. His elevation to the Governor's 
Chair was a well-deserved honor to a worthy citizen. 

Matthew H. Fitzpatrick represented the County in the 
House of Assembly from 1897-1901. In 1901 George G. 
Patterson was elected along with E. M. Macdonald and 
C. E. Tanner, and became a member of the Murray Gov- 
ernment, but failed of election, in 1906. Robert M. Mac- 
Gregor, son of the Hon. James D. McGregor, was nomin- 
ated in 1904 to succeed E. M. Macdonald in the Legisla- 
ture. He was opposed by A. C. Bell, whom he defeated. 
He was elected again in 1906 with Charles E. Tanner. 
John M. Baillie represented county at Halifax from 1906- 
to 1911. In 1909, R. H. MacKay was elected when Mr. 
Tanner sought to regain his seat. In the election of 1911, 
Charles E. Tanner, Robert M. MacGregor and R. H. 
MacKay were chosen and are the present representatives. 
Mr. MacGregor is a member of the Murray Government, 
and Mr. Tanner Leader of the Opposition. 

208 



PICTOU IN POLITICS 

Reverting to the Confederation period, the County 
chose as its first representatives to Ottawa, James W. 
Carmichael, a Liberal, and a man of much ability, who 
served from 1867 to 1872, and again from 1874 to 1878. 
Redistribution in 1872 gave Pictou the right to send two 
members to Ottawa, and James McDonald and Robert 
Doull, were elected on the Conservative ticket. In 1898 
Mr. Carmichael was called to the Senate, but resigned in 
1903 and died on May 1, 1903 in his eighty-fourth year. 

Mr. Carmichael was the son of James Carmichael and 
Christian McKenzie, his wife, both natives of Canada, of 
Scotch descent. He was born at New Glasgow, Dec. 16, 
1819. Educated at Pictou Academy, married 1851, to 
Maria, daughter of Duncan McColl, of Guysboro, N. S., 
(she died Dec. 1874). Mr. Carmichael was long one of 
the best and most prominent citizens of Pictou County. 
He was widely and honorably known throughout Canada, 
as a business man and as a public man. From 1874- 
1878, John A. Dawson, represented the county in the 
Dominion Parliament with Mr. Carmichael. 

In 1878, with the return of Sir John A. Macdonald to 
power, James McDonald and Robert Doull, were once 
more successful. For many years, Mr. McDonald was in 
the political arena, As a young man, he showed great 
aptitude for political life and leadership. He afterwards 
became one of the most prominent politicians in Canada. 
Elected by his native county to the Local and Dominion 
Parliaments, he soon took a leading place as a public 
speaker and debater. That James McDonald's honor 
and ability was recognized by his contemporaries is evi- 
denced by the numerous responsible positions which he 
held. He was Financial Secretary for Nova Scotia, Rail- 
way Commissioner in Nova Scotia, Imperial Commissioner 
in a crown difficulty in Jamaica and member of several 
national trade commissions. 

In 1878 he became Minister of Justice in the Sir John A. 

209 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Macdonald's Government, and three years afterwards 
was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Nova 
Scotia. His place in Parliament was taken by John Mc- 
Dougald, C.M.G., who was re-elected in 1882, 1886, 1890 
and 1896, retiring in that year to accept the position of 
Commissioner of Customs for Canada, which he still holds. 
Robert Doull was the colleague of Hon. James McDonald 
from 1872 to 1874 and again from 1878 to 1882. In 
1882, Charles H. Tupper, now Sir Charles H. Tupper 
of Victoria, B.C., came in and continued to represent the 
County until 1904. 

Edward M. Macdonald, first appealed to the Electors 
in 1894 at the Provincial election but was unsuccessful. 
In 1896 he was a candidate for the Dominion Par- 
liament with the same result. In 1897 he won the elec- 
tion to the House of Assembly, and again in 1900. He 
resigned to stand for the Dominion House but was 
again defeated by Adam C. Bell. He was, however, re- 
turned to the Legislature unopposed. In 1894, Charles 
E. Tanner was elected to the Legislature with Wm. 
Cameron and Alex. Grant. In 1897 he was defeated, but 
elected in 1901 and 1906. He resigned in 1908 to run for 
the Federal Seat against E. M. McDonald and was de- 
feated. He sought re-election to the Assembly, but was 
defeated by R. H. McKay. He was re-elected in 1911. 
In the general election of 1896, Adam C. Bell was nomin- 
ated in place of John McDougald and secured election 
as he did again in 1900. In 1904 Edward M. Macdonald 
was elected to a seat in the Dominion which he has since 
held, being re-elected in 1908 and 1911, having now repre- 
sented the County continuously in Legislature and Parlia- 
ment for eighteen years. 

The first Pictonian in the Legislative Council, was the 
Hon. James Fraser, Drummond, of New Glasgow, who was 
was appointed in 1867. Mr. Fraser was a man of much 
force and character and was a leader in Church and State. 

210 



PICTOU IN POLITICS 

He died in 1884, at the advanced age of 82. The next was 
the Hon. John D. McLeod in 1887. He served as Liberal 
Leader in the Council. Another Pictonian, a native of 
Durham, Hon. W. D. R. Cameron of Sherbrooke, became 
a member of the Council in 1892. In 1864 he settled in 
Sherbrooke and held office of Registrar of Deeds, from 
1869-1902. He died at Halifax April 7, 1914, aged 77 years. 

The County of Pictou was represented in the Senate by 
the Hon. John Holmes, 1867 to 1876. The Hon. R. P. 
Grant, a native of Scotland, was appointed in 1887. The 
first Pictonian called to the Senate was, Thomas McKay, 
of Truro in 1881. Mr. McKay was born at Hopewell, 
Pictou Co., and was long engaged in mercantile pursuits 
in Truro, N. S. For seven years he represented the 
County of Colchester before he was called to the Senate. 
The next was Clarence Primrose of Pictou, followed by 
James W. Carmichael of New Glasgow, 1898; James D. 
McGregor in 1903 and Adam C. Bell, 1911, both of New 
Glasgow. Thomas Fraser, Rogers Hill, represented Cali- 
fornia in the Senate for several years. Mr. Primrose, was 
the son of late James Primrose, a native of Scotland. 
He was born at Pictou, Oct. 5, 1830. Educated at 
Pictou Academy and the Univ., of Edinburgh. Became 
the head of the firm Primrose Bros., Commission Mer- 
chants, Lumber and Shipping Agents. 

Adam Carr Bell was born in Pictou on November 11, 
1847, and was the son of Basil Bell and Mary Carr. The 
progenitors of the Bells were natives of Scotland, and the 
Carrs were from England. Basil Bell was a distinguished 
man of letters and taught in the Pictou Academy when 
Senator Bell was born, while on his mother's side, Adam 
Carr was the first man to mine coal for commercial 
purposes at the Albion Mines. 

Mr. Bell received his education in the New Glasgow 
Schools, at Mount Allison University and at the Glasgow 
University, Scotland. Always a studious man of affairs 

211 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

and a strong, logical, graceful speaker with a fine presence 
and commanding appearance he was elected by the Con- 
servative party for the local house in 1878. In 1886 he 
was elected for Pictou County at the head of the poll of 
six candidates, but in 1887 resigned his seat to contest the 
County as an independent Conservative for the House of 
Commons, but was defeated For the next nine years he 
remained out of active politics, but was always interested 
in the public welfare, and was seen on the platform on 
several historic occasions. He was the first Mayor of 
New Glasgow in 1876 In 1911 he was called to the Senate 
by the Borden Government. His death following soon 
after his appointment was universally regretted. 

Pictou has not only had men to represent her worthily on 
the floors of Parliament, but has sent out many of her sons 
to win political honors in other fields. Among the latter 
may be mentioned Robert Marshall of St. John, New 
Brunswick. In 1874 he was a candidate for the City of 
St. John, N. B., in the Provincial elections, but was de- 
feated. In 1876 he was returned for the Constituency 
and was elected for a second term. He was a member of 
the Government for some years until his retirement from 
politics, in 1882. He was born in Pictou County, April 
27, 1832. His grandfather, was Robert, commonly 
called, "Deacon Marshall," who came from Dumfries, 
Scotland, to Pictou, in 1775, with the South of Scotland 
people, and settled at the Middle River, where he built the 
first barn in the county, and where the Presbytery of 
Pictou held its first meeting. 

E. M. Macdonald, senior, son of the late George Mac- 
donald, of West River, and a younger brother of the late 
A. C. McDonald, was elected the first Dominion member, 
in 1867, for the County of Lunenburg. He was born at 
West River, in 1825, and was one of Joseph Howe's chief 
lieutenants. He was made Collector of Customs for 
Halifax, in 1870 and died in 1874. He was a brilliant 

212 



PICTOU IN POLITICS 

writer and speaker. Dr. Alexander Cameron of Glengarry 
was for many years a representative for the County of 
Huntington, in the Local Legislature for Quebec. 

Hon. Angus McGillivray, a native of Bailey's Brook, 
was first returned to Local Legislature for Antigonish in 
1878, as a Liberal; and continued a member thereof, with 
but little interruption until his elevation to the Bench in 
1902. He was Speaker of the Nova Scotia Assembly from 
1883 to 1886, and a member of the Fielding and Murray 
Governments. 

William A. Patterson of town of Pictou, represented the 
county of Colchester in the Local House from 1874 to 
1886, and again in the Dominion House from 1891 to 1896. 
Guysboro County had a worthy representative in Hali- 
fax in James A. Fraser of McLellan's Brook from 1882 to 
1890. He is now Editor of the Eastern Chronicle and 
Mayor of New Glasgow. D. C. Fraser, afterwards Hon. 
D. C. Fraser, represented the county of Guysboro for 
many years. From 1888 to 1891, he was leader of the 
Government in the Council, when he was elected to the 
Dominion Parliament from Guysboro. He continued to 
represent the County until 1904 when he became Judge 
of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia and in 1906 was ap- 
pointed Lieutenant Governor for the Province, which 
office he held until his death in 1910. He was one of the 
best known and most popular men in the public life of 
Canada. 

In Ontario, Dr. Peter Macdonald, a native of Toney 
River, represented Center Huron from 1896 to 1904 in 
the Federal Parliament and was Deputy Speaker in the 
House of Commons from 1900 to 1904. A. E. Fraser of 
McLellan's Brook, represented the County of Cumberland 
in the House of Assembly from 1894 to 1902. The same 
county was also represented from 1901 to 1906 by Daniel 
McLeod, who was born near Hopewell. 

In 1906 the people of King's County chose a man of 

213 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Pictou, Chas. A. Campbell, for their spokesman at Halifax. 
In 1911 the County of Cape Breton selected another, 
John C. Douglas, a Stellarton boy, to send to the Halifax 
Assembly, after having had as their Dominion Representa- 
tive from 1908 to 1911, James W. Maddin of Westville. 

In British Columbia, Pictou men have also come to the 
front. The records of that Province show that Robert 
Grant of Pictou was elected for Comox County in 1903 
and 1907; Neil F. MacKay, a son of the late Alexander 
MacKay, M.P.P., of Pictou, represents Kaslo; and another, 
Wm. R. McLean, son of the late D. K. McLean of Pictou, 
represents Nelson. H. M. Tweedie, was born at Stellarton, 
son of the Rev. Mr. Tweedie, pastor of the Methodist 
Church. He represents Calgary Center in the Legislative 
Assembly of Alberta. 

In Newfoundland, the memory of Hon. A. M. MacKay, 
a son of Pictou, who achieved distinction in telegraph work 
is still revered. His political career in Newfoundland, 
was in many respects unique. For nineteen years he was 
a member of the House of Assembly, and enjoyed the dis- 
tinction of never having been defeated. For many years 
he was a leading member of the Legislative Council. 

A Pictou man who has won distinction in distant Aus- 
tralia, is Hon. Simon Fraser, son of William Fraser, of 
Lome, where he was born in 1834. He went to Australia as 
a young man and engaged in bridge and road construction. 
He became active in public affairs and was elected to the 
Assembly in 1874, representing the County of Rodney, 
Victoria, for nine years. In 1886 he became a member of 
the Council and 1901 he was elected to the Senate. Hon. 
Senator Fraser, has taken a deep interest in all the public 
and religious interests of the Colony. He resides at Mel- 
bourne, Victoria. Another Mr. Fraser, from Lome, was 
Commissioner of Public Works in San Francisco, Cal., for 
some time. He was a brother of late John Fraser, post- 
master, Stellarton. 

214 



PICTOU IN POLITICS 

Pictou has every reason to be proud of the part her sons 
have played in the political life of the country. Summing 
up the list we find that she has given to the service of the 
State two governors of Nova Scotia, a Minister of Justice 
for Canada, seven Senators, a Chief Justice of the Prov- 
ince, a Supreme Court Judge, Three County Court Judges, 
two Premiers of the Province, and four Legislative 
Councillors. The County has had a representative in 
every Provincial Ministry since 1875. 



215 



CHAPTER XI 
PICTOU IN THE BUSINESS WORLD 

THE influence of Pictou County in the development 
of the industrial and commercial life of Canada has 
been highly important. Her enterprising sons have held 
positions of responsibility throughout the length and 
breadth of the land; and her mariners have trod the 
quarter deck on every sea. Only a few facts and names 
however can be presented in this chapter. 

Pictou County is fifty miles long and about twenty 
miles wide, and contains 719,000 acres. It has one of the 
finest harbors on the northern shore of the Province with 
three fine streams, East, West and Middle rivers, flowing 
into it. Along the shore the land is low and level, but in 
the interior it is hilly and undulating with fine natural 
scenery. From Eraser's Mountain, Green Hill and Mt. 
Thorn are to be seen ever-varying and most beautiful 
views of hill and dale, sea and land, field and forest. 

When the first settlers arrived in Pictou the whole of 
the county was covered with timber of the finest quality. 
White pine was particularly plentiful and common, but 
oak, fir, maple and all kinds of wood were found of large 
size and in great abundance, and afforded a valuable source 
of income to the inhabitants ; and the lumbering industry 
was then, as it has been of later years, extensive and 
prosperous. In 1774 the first cargo of square timber was 
shipped to Britain. In 1803, some 50 vessels were loaded 
in Pictou Town. The cutting, hewing, hauling, rafting and 
shipping of ton timber, became for some years the chief 
business of many of the people of Pictou. As the timber 
was cut and removed men turned their attention more and 
more to farming. 

217 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Pictou County has always been considered one of the 
best agricultural counties in the Province. With the 
exception of a few tracts of land here and there, the whole 
county is fit for cultivation. The first Agricultural 
Society in the Province was formed at West River, Jan. 
1, 1817, with the Rev. Duncan Ross as President, Daniel 
Fraser, Treasurer, and John Bonnyman Secretary. They 
imported seed grain, agricultural implements and Ayrshire 
cattle. In 1818 they held a ploughing match on Mr. 
Mortimer's farm, near Pictou. Prizes were offered for 
the best acre of wheat, and for the man who could stump 
and plough the greatest quantity of new land. A similar 
society was organized on the East River in 1820. 

Coal was first discovered in Pictou County in 1798. 
Word was sent to England that there was coal in abundance 
in Pictou; that it was found on the margin of the East 
River; that it was accessible to ships of light tonnage, and 
that the coal was of the best bituminous quality. A 
wealthy firm purchased the ground. This was the begin- 
ning of Pictou's coal industry. In 1827 the General 
Mining Association purchased the property, immediately 
commenced active development, and, before the end of the 
year, were producing coal on an extensive scale, using a 
steam engine for hoisting. Stellarton is the largest coal 
producing center in the County, and is a thriving 
business town. 

The Acadia Coal Company of Stellarton is the direct 
successor of one of the oldest mining corporations of the 
County. That it survives until today, and possesses as 
it does one of the most modern and the most complete 
coal-handling equipments in the country, speaks volumes 
for the great value of the coal fields of Pictou. It is said 
that the thickest coal seam in the world is found here 38 
feet in depth. This company owns the Acadia Coal Mine 
at Westville and the Vale Mine at Thorburn. 

Fifty years ago a wilderness of scrubby birch and 

218 



PICTOU IN THE BUSINESS WORLD 

hemlock covered the site on which the town of Westville 
now stands, with a population of over 5000. In the year 
1854 prospectors began searching for coal, and discovered 
the outcrop of a seam on the north side of the town where 
the land slopes toward the Middle River. The Black 
Diamond Company was the first to commence operations, 
and was soon followed by the Acadia, and in 1868 by the 
Drummond. A railway was completed to Granton and 
later to Abercrombie, where there are wharves and all 
conveniences necessary for shipping coal. The works of 
the Vale Colliery at Thorburn were started in 1872. 
Thorburn is prettily situated and has a population of over 
1200. A railroad six miles long leading from the colliery 
to New Glasgow is in operation. The total coal pro- 
duction in Pictou County for 1913 was 700,000 tons. 

In looking at the thousands of miles of railways in 
Canada it may be interesting to note that the first steam 
engine erected in Nova Scotia was at the Albion Mines, 
Dec. 7, 1827, and that the first railway built in Canada, 
and one of the earliest on the continent, was by the 
General Mining Association from its works at Albion 
Mines, six miles, to the old Loading Ground near Aber- 
crombie. It was begun in 1836 and opened in 1839. 
The rolling stock came out from England, in a sailing 
vessel. In this vessel there were the several parts of 
three engines, the names of which were the Samson, the 
Hercules and the Hybernia. The Samson was named for 
Scotland; the Hercules for England; and the Hybernia 
for Ireland. The Samson was the first one set up and the 
one that made the first trip. 

In 1830 the first steamboat was seen in the Harbor of 
Pictou. The "Richard Smith" was put in operation by 
the same company. She was commanded by Capt. Mc- 
Kenzie. The first steamer to cross the Atlantic wholly 
by her own steam power was coaled in and sailed from 
Pictou Harbor in 1833. 

219 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

The first attempt to smelt iron in Pictou County was 
made by the General Mining Association in 1828, the year 
after the Company had commenced operations in this 
field. Just previously, iron ore had been discovered near 
McLennan's Brook, a short distance from the company's 
colliery. The ore was sent to England for analysis and, 
a favorable report having been made by the company's 
chemists, a deeper interest was aroused in the latent 
possibilities of the country. In 1829 an attempt was made 
to manufacture pig iron. For this purpose a blast furnace 
was erected at Albion Mines, the first in Canada. Iron 
was smelted to the extent of about 50 tons. The ruins of 
this furnace were standing until 1855. 

In 1872 the Hope Iron Works, afterwards the Nova 
Scotia Forge Company commenced operations in New 
Glasgow with a capital of $4000 with a view to manu- 
facturing railway and marine forgings. Six years later, 
the works were removed to a larger site, upon the banks of 
the East River, in the present town of Trenton. As the 
enterprise prospered, the principal shareholders of the 
company decided to engage in the manufacture of steel, 
at the same time organizing for this purpose a new com- 
pany called the Nova Scotia Steel Company with a capital 
of $160,000. The first steel ingots were made here in 
July, 1883, being the first produced in Canada on a 
commercial basis. 

One of the chief difficulties encountered by the Company 
was that of obtaining suitable ore. In 1894, the well 
known Wabana iron ore deposits of Bell Island, Nfd., was 
acquired. This deposit now forms the chief source of ore 
supply for the furnaces of the Province. In 1900, after 
purchasing the coal and other properties of the General 
Mining Association in Cape Breton, the Nova Scotia Steel 
Company was reorganized, and assumed the present 
name of the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company. New 
Glasgow is the seat of the manufacturing departments, 

220 



PICTOU IN THE BUSINESS WORLD 

finishing mills, forges and machine shops. The company's 
axle-shops are world famous. It is claimed that this 
branch of the New Glasgow plant has produced a greater 
number of axles per day than any other works in the Em- 
pire. There are said to be none of the same capacity on 
the continent of Europe. Fish-plates, tie-plates, track- 
spikes, nuts and bolts of the various standard sizes are 
produced. 

Another important new enterprise is the Eastern Car 
Company for the manufacture of railway cars. It was 
formed in 1912, and is virtually a creation of the Steel 
Company. A splendid site has been secured for it on the 
east bank of the East River, adjoining the Nova Scotia 
Steel Company. The shops and plant when complete 
will be capable of an output of 30 cars per day, and about 
9000 cars per working year. 

In a survey of the vast consolidated interests of the 
Nova Scotia Steel Company and the Eastern Car Com- 
pany, it is difficult to realize that if, 30 years ago, one had 
visited the upper corner of the Graham Shipyard, in the 
town of New Glasgow, one would have found there the 
parent of it all a small forge, whose main product was 
the iron-knees which were used for the wooden ships then 
being built there. Let it be noted that this company owes 
its existence largely to two sons of the soil, Graham Fraser, 
and G. Forrest McKay of New Glasgow. They now, 
naturally, possess a fair share of this world's goods, but 
their greatest reward for perseverance and toil in compara- 
tive obscurity in early days, must be the gratification of 
seeing, in less than four decades, their little forge shop 
expand into what is one of the largest steel industries in 
Canada. These men, along with Thomas Cantley, the 
present capable General Manager, have done a great work 
for Pictou County and for all Canada. 

The Town of Pictou was long the second in importance 
in the Province, and it still enjoys a peculiar character 

221 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

and charm of its own. It has good reason to be proud of 
its history and institutions, its men and its ships. The 
corner stone of the first house in Pictou was not laid until 
1789, but once it started, the growth of the village into 
a town, was rapid. The first leading business man in the 
town was Edw. Mortimer, an Englishman who came to 
this country while yet a young man, without means, went 
into the timber and fish business, first representing a 
Halifax firm in Pictou and then for himself. He first 
located himself a little above Mortimer's Point, near Squire 
Patterson whose daughter he married. Here he put up 
a small building, intended both for a house and a store. 
Afterwards he removed to the Point near the Stone House, 
where he had his home and where he built two large 
wharves out to deep water. Here he amassed a small 
fortune. He died suddenly, in 1819, at the age of 52, and 
his estate dwindled to practically nothing. He built 
Norway House, one of the historic and interesting places 
in the town. 

Beckels Wilson in "Nova Scotia" speaks of Norway 
House as the best house in Pictou, perhaps the best built 
private one in Nova Scotia, with its walls a foot and a half 
thick, fine fat timbers, plenty of honest freestone, and a 
great dry cellar and as sturdy today as the day he built it. 

Other business men of the early days of Pictou were 
John Dawson, Thomas Davidson, George Smith, 
William Mortimer, John Patterson, Abram Patterson, 
Henry Hatton and James Dawson who was the first book- 
seller in the Province outside of Halifax. William 
Matheson, Rogers Hill, began on a small scale and after- 
wards moved to West River, where he did a large country 
trade. Robert McKay began business in River John soon 
after Ed. Mortimer's death, with whom he had been a clerk. 

River John was at one time a prominent center for ship- 
building and business enterprise. The leading men were the 
McKenzies, the McLennans, the Henrys, and the Kitchins, 

222 



PICTOU IN THE BUSINESS WORLD 

Business being now well established, a number of mer- 
chants combined to build a vessel to be a regular trader 
between Pictou and the Old Country. She was called the 
Enterprise and was built by Thos. Lowden, and launched 
in 1820. Captain Lowden may be considered the father 
of the ship building art in Pictou. He was a native of the 
South of Scotland and settled in Pictou town about 1788. 
In 1798 he launched the ship Harriet, which was, at that 
time, considered the largest and finest ship built in the 
Province. In 1825 came the terrible financial crisis in the 
mother country which for a time killed the shipping and 
timber business in Pictou. The day on which the intelli- 
gence came was long known as "Black Monday." 

Of what may be called the second generation of Pictou's 
business men, the late James Primrose, was one of the 
most prominent. He was the father of the late Hon. 
Clarence Primrose, Senator, and of the late Howard Prim- 
rose, almost equally prominent in their generation. James 
Primrose, senior, was a son of the Scottish manse, and 
came to Nova Scotia in his youth without any pecuniary 
endowment. By means of untiring industry and scrupu- 
lous uprightness, characteristics which he has transmitted 
to all his descendants, he made his way rapidly to the 
front in business and finance. He constructed at the 
east end of the Town, the handsome dwelling familiarly 
known as "The Cottage," now occupied by his grandson 
James and his two sisters, Miss Primrose and Miss 
Rachael. 

Associated for a time in business with Mr. Primrose was 
the late A. P. Ross, barrister, who early withdrew from 
the Bar to devote himself to commercial and industrial 
enterprises. 

More or less contemporary with these were such other 
successful business men as the late James Purves, William 
Gordon, William H. Davies, Roderick McKenzie, John 
Crearer, J. D. B. Fraser, John Yorston, James Kitchin, 

223 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

David McCulloch, John T. Ives, William Ives, James Ives, 
James Hislop, A. J. Patterson, Robert Doull, Daniel 
Hockin, Richard Tanner, James P. McLennan, David 
Fullerton, all of whom made their mark in business, and 
most of whom have left descendants prominent in the 
social and public life of the Province. 

The history of New Glasgow dates back to about the 
year 1809. At that time there were not more than a 
dozen houses in the place. Today, it is a large industrial 
and business centre with a population of over 7000. The 
men who founded New Glasgow were James Carmichael, 
John McKay, Hon. James Fraser, James McGregor, 
Roderick McGregor, Alexander Fraser, John McKenzie, 
George McKenzie, Thomas Graham and John Cameron. 
New Glasgow was fortunate in its founders, for they were 
men possessing fine business ability and great force of 
character. They were not only interested in the com- 
mercial growth and progress of the town but in its moral 
and religious life. Most of the men were officers in the 
church; some of them took a deep interest in state 
matters; many were zealous advocates of temperance, and 
all of them staunch upholders of law and justice. The 
credit of selecting New Glasgow as a business centre for 
East Pictou belongs to James Carmichael who opened a 
store there about the year 1810. 

In the early days of New Glasgow shipbuilding was the 
chief and only industry in the place. From 1840 to 1870 
saw its palmiest days. Vessels of all sizes were built, 
numbers of which made successful voyages to all parts of 
the world, commanded by captains born and trained in 
the county. Prominent and foremost among the ship- 
builders of New Glasgow was George McKenzie, who not 
only built the largest vessels of the day, but commanded 
several of them. He made New Glasgow noted as one 
of the shipbuilding centers of Nova Scotia, and probably 
did more than anyone else to make the town. 

224 



PICTOU IN THE BUSINESS WORLD 

The opening of the Albion Mines Railway in 1839 gave 
a great impetus to the business life of New Glasgow. Con- 
sequently a large number of merchants started business 
there from that time to 1850, among whom were Alexander 
Douglas, John F. McDonald, James Fraser, Downie, 
William Fraser, Basil Bell, Thomas R. Fraser, Angus 
Chisholm, Thomas Fraser, George W. Underwood and 
John Cameron. Associated with these as prominent 
citizens were William Lippincott, Robert McGregor, John 
Miller, William Chisholm, David Marshall, Kenneth 
Forbes, and George McKay who exerted a large influence 
in the development of the town at a later period. 

Among the early business men of Stellarton were James 
Mitchell, James Wentworth, Donald Gray, Alexander 
Grant and James Keith. In Merigomish, R. S. Copeland 
was for many years a leading shipbuilder. Later on David 
Patterson built ships in Merigomish Harbor. John Logan, 
tanner, the founder of the present community of Lyon's 
Brook, was a prominent business man in his day. 

Many natives of the county have made a place for 
themselves outside of Pictou in the business and industrial 
world. Beginning with Newfoundland, the late Hon. A. 
M. Mackay was Manager of the Anglo-American Tele- 
graph Company. He was born near Pictou in 1834 and 
died in 1905. From early life he was distinguished for 
his wonderful memory and had a positive genius for figures 
and mathematics. He began life first as a teacher, next 
as a telegrapher and was one of the first to read a message 
by sound. For nearly half a century he retained his 
position, putting the company on a successful basis and 
serving it with great fidelity. Like Cyrus Field he had a 
firm belief in the ultimate success of the laying of the 
Atlantic Cable, and he had a large share in bringing it to 
a successful completion. Judge Prowse of Newfoundland 
says no man can rob Mackay 's memory of this undying 
honor. 

225 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 

Perhaps the oldest representatives Pictou has in Mon- 
treal and those who have made the greatest material suc- 
cess are: Mr. David H. Fraser and his brother, Wm. H. 
Fraser The Fraser brothers are sons of Hugh J. Fraser, 
whose home was on the West River near Durham. They 
are now voted among Montreal's millionaires. 

Another successful business man is Archibald Ross of 
the firm of Ross & Greig, second son of the late David 
Ross of Saltsprings. Mr. Ross is a Mechanical Engineer 
and the firm acts as manufacturers' agents. 

Mr. A. P. Willis, another Pictonian has made for himself 
a reputation and at the same time a fortune by putting 
musical instruments into thousands of Canadian homes. 
Mr. Willis was born near Millsville in 1845. In 1873 he 
migrated to Montreal where he engaged in the sewing 
machine business, and selling of pianos and organs. After 
25 years of selling, Mr. Willis decided to manufacture; 
and the company's factory at Montreal turns out about 
4000 pianos every year. 

Mr. Alpine McLean, born near New Glasgow, was for 
many years a prominent business man in Boston engaged 
in the wholesale flour and feed business. He was a leader 
in the moral and religious work of the city. He died 
in 1913. 

Hugh R. McGregor was born at Brookville, Pictou 
County 1859. When he was 12 years of age he moved to 
Providence, R. I. In 1877 he went to Brown and Sharpe 
to learn the machinist trade. In the third year of his ap- 
prenticeship he was appointed Assistant foreman of the 
building of Milling Machines, and in 1898 to the position 
of Mechanical Superintendent. The Brown &' Sharpe 
Company employ over 5000 men and at the present time 
are manufacturing 39 different Milling machines. The 
names of many other Pictonians of influence and business 
enterprise might be added if the writer knew of their 
location and business. __ 

226 



PICTOU IN THE BUSINESS WORLD 

The county has made an enviable record in the past ; 
it is still to do great things in the future. Pictou of 
today and Pictou of yesterday! What a contrast : The 
change seems almost miraculous, from the forest primeval 
to the present verdancy of its hills and valleys, with their 
well-tilled fields. Upon every hand, now, are comfortable 
homes, pretty villages, towns laid out with care, hand- 
some churches, modern school houses, fine academic build- 
ings, intersecting railways, vast coal and iron industries, 
and a population of thirty-six thousand enterprising, 
progressive and intelligent people. 

Now my task is done. It has been an arduous duty, 
yet a pleasant one. It has been an honor and a privilege 
to pay a tribute to these noble men and women who did 
so much for God and native land. 

These resolute men and women, who in strict morality 
and with high ideals laid the foundations of the social 
fabric enjoyed by us today, were spiritual seers and 
heroes. They won for us our fame, our freedom and 
our fortune. Too many of us have never fully acquainted 
ourselves with their heroism and their achievements. 

If every Pictonian were as well acquainted with the 
history of his native county as he should be, and as 
proud of it as he might well be, he would have a higher 
appreciation of the splendid moral and material heritage 
his forefathers left him, and would in common loyalty 
seek to honor their memory and emulate their virtues. 



227 



INDEX 



Abercrombie 185,219 

Academy, Pictou 135 

Acadia Coal Company . . . .218 

Advocate, Pictou 198 

Albion Mines . . . 56,219,220,226 
America's Oldest Paper . . . .191 

Archibald, S.G.Vf 5,203 

Arrival of the Hector 7 

Arrival of the Hope 1,3 

Australia 180,214 

Bailey's Brook 90 

Barney's River 82 

History of Churches . . . 52,83 

Ministers born in 87 

Baptist Church 56 

Barristers 124-129 

Bayne, H. A 141,160 

Bayne, Rev. James . . . 41,61,159 

Bench and the Bar 123 

Bell, Hon. A. C 207,211 

Bible Society 45 

Big Election 204 

Blackadar, Henry 205 

Blaikie, Rev. A 19,92 

Blaikie, Chas 19 

Blair, Rev. D. B 52,81,83 

Blanchard, Hiram 125,207 

Blanchard, Jotham . . 124,139,205 
Blue Mountain 

History of Churches . . . .81 

Ministers born in 85 

Bridgeville 70,72 

Burns Family 68-70 

Cameron, Alexander .... 7,9,10 
Cameron, Rev. Duncan .... 86 

Cameron, Rev. John 78 

Cameron, W. D. R 10,211 

Cameron, William .... 10,208 

Campbell, Don. F 162 

Campbell, Rev. John 100 

Cantley, Thomas 221 

Cape John . 99 

Carmichael, James 224 

Carmichael, Hon. J. W 209 

Cariboo 5,101,188 

Census, first 39,58 

Churchville 22,71 

Church of England 55 

Clark, William 19 

Coal Discovered . . 218 



Coal Production 219 

Cock, Rev . Daniel .... 35,87 

Cock, Rev. D. M 187 

College Presidents .... 149-159 

Colonial Patriot 192,205 

Colonial Standard 197 

Cobequid Road 3 

Council of Twelve 138 

County of Pictou 

Population 2,7,39,58 

Size 217 

Creighton, James E 163 

dimming, Rev. Robert .... 79 
Gumming, Rev. Thomas .... 77 

Dalhousie College 147,199 

Dawson, Sir William . 150-154,178,194 

Dawson, Geo. M 163 

Dawson, W. B 164 

Dawson, James 194,222 

Dawson, John 16,222 

Dawson, John A. 209 

Davidson, James 34 

Descendants of John Grant . . .31 

Denominations 58 

Dentists 122 

Dickson, Thomas 124,205 

Disruption of 1843 50 

Dobson, Rev. J. R 63 

Donnelly, Dr. Jas 106 

Doull, Robt 209,210 

Durham 21,22,45,92 

"Dumfries Settlers" 14 

Earltown 99 

East River 

First Settlers 22 

History of Churches .... 70 

Ministers born in 71 

East River St. Mary's 

History of Churches .... 83 

Ministers born in 86 

Eastern Chronicle 195 

Eastern Car Works 221 

Education 149 

Educationists, Pictou 149 

Elders 37,61,62.71,75 

Elliott, Rev. Chas 55 

Enterprise, The 197 



Falconer, Rev. A. . 
Falconer, Prin. R. A. . 



11,61,78 
11 



228 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 



Families in the Hector .... 8 
Families in the Hope .... 3 

Field, Cyrus 225 

Ferrona 75 

First 

Agricultural Society . . . .218 

Bible Society 45 

Churches 38 

Election 203 

Missionary 177 

Native Ministers 43 

Premier 207 

Printing Press 191 

Presbytery 40 

Railway 219 

Sabbath School . . . . 34,35 

Sacrament 39 

Session 37 

Steamboat 219 

Theological School 42 

Temperance Society .... 46 

Eraser, Alexander 10 

Fraser, Rev. A. L 

Fraser, Rev. D. A. ... 47,48,81 

Fraser, Hon. D. C 127,213 

Fraser, David H 226 

Fraser, Rev. D. S 92 

Fraser, Rev. H. W 68 

Fraser, Graham 221 

Fraser, Hon. Jas 210 

Fraser, James A 23,213 

Fraser, J. D. B 9,223 

Fraser, Hon. J. 48 

Fraser, Hon. Simon 214 

Fraser, Thos. Senator .... 9 

Fraser, Rev. William 83 

Fraser, Dr. William 110 

Fraser, William A 165 

Fraser, Wm. R 166 

Fitzpatrick, M. H 208 

Free Church 50,51 

Free Church College 53 

French River 87,89 

Fogo, Hon. Jas 124,130 

Forbes, Rev. J. F 85 

Forbes, Hon. J. G 127 

Foreign Missions 178 

Foreign Missionaries . . . 178-190 
Forrest, Rev. John .... 158,199 

Gairloch 49,79 

Geddie, Rev. John . . . 177-180 

Geddie, Mrs John 180 

General Mining Association 218-220 



Gordon, Rev. D. M 157 

Goodwill, Rev. John 183 

Grant, Alexander, M. P. P. . . . 210 

Grant, Rev. Chas. M 186 

Grant, Rev. Geo. M. .... 154.156 

Grant, Rev. Edward 93 

Grant, Finlay 31 

Grant, Rev. H. R 67,68 

Grant, James 24 

Grant, Rev. K. J 184 

Grant, Rev. R. J 73 

Grant, Hon. R. P 211 

Grant, Rev Wm 73 

Grant, Prof . W. R 25,110 

Granton 81,219 

Green Hill 

History of Churches . . . .91 

Ministers born in 92 

Gunn, Rev. S. C 86 

Hardwood Hill 100 

Halifax Gazette 191 

Harris, Dr. John 3,6,105 

Harris, Matthew 2,3 

Hector People 5.7,8 

Herdman, Rev. A 48,63 

Holmes, Hon. John . 23,205,206,211 
Holmes, Hon. S. H. . . . 23,128,207 

Hope People 1,2,3 

Hopewell 

History of Churches .... 74 

Ministers born in 75 

Howe, Hon. Joseph . . . .139.205 



Iron Industry . . 

Johnson, Rev. D. W. 
Journalists . 



220 



. . 103 
. 193-200 



Kennedy, William .... 2,3,6 
Kirk Church 47.50,139 

Law, Bonar 17 

Lawson, Alexander 193 

Lane, Franklin K 70 

Legal Profession, first 123 

Lindsay, Dr. A. W. H 112 

Lippincott, Dr. Henry . . . .112 

Lippincott, Dr. J. A 112 

List of Lawyers 129 

List of Physicians 106 

List of Educationists 162 

Little Harbor 

History of Churches .... 88 

Ministers born in 89 



229 



INDEX 



Log Churches 38 

Logan, Daniel 196 

Logan, John D 166 

Logan, John 225 

Lome Ministers 76 

Lowden, Thomas 223 

Lumber Industry 24,217 

Lyon's Brook 34 

Lyon> Rev. J 2,34 

Macdonald, C. D 128 

Macdonald, E. M 9,212 

Macdonald, E. M., M. P. . 129,208,210 
Macdonald, Jas. A., Toronto . . 27 
Macdonald, Rev. John A. ... 72 
Macdonald, Rev. P. M. . . . 134,200 
Macdonald, Dr. Peter. . . .115,213 

Macdonald, Rev. W. B 89 

MacGlashen, Rev. J. A 89 

MacGregor, R. M 208 

Mackenzie, A. Stanley . . . .159 

Mackenzie, Rev. C. E 64 

Mackenzie, William .... 7,8,10 

MacKay, A. H 142,168 

MacKay, Hon. A. M 214,225 

MacKay, Ebenezer 169 

MacKay, H. M 169 

MacKay, Ira W . 169 

MacKay, R. H 208 

Mackinnon, Rev. C 53,159 

Mackinnon, Rev. John .... 75 

Maclean, Rev. A 59,75,79 

Maclean, Dr. Duncan . . . .118 
Maclean, Rev. James . . . 53,71 

Maclellan, Anthony 18 

MacleUan, W. E 19,199 

Maclellan, Robt. . . . 19,142,144,170 

Macleod, Prof. J. W 171 

MacNaughton, Rev. S 79 

Macrae, Rev. Donald . . . 71,74,158 
Macrae, Rev. John .... 49,71 

Macrae, Rev. W. L 185 

McDonald, A. C 124,206 

McDonald, Rev. F. R 74 

McDonald, Hon. James 26,125,206,209 

McCabe, James 1,3 

McConnell, George 8 

McConneU, Robt 8,196 

McCulloch, Rev. Thomas 

16,40,43,136,140,149,204 

McCulloch, Prof. Thos 167 

McCulloch, Rev. Wm 62 

McCunn, Rev. Robt 102 

McDougald, John 210 



McGillivray, Rev. Alexander . . 52 
McGillivray, Rev. Angus .... 43 

McGillivray, Hon. A. ... 128,213 

McGregor, Hugh R. ..... 226 

McGregor, Rev. James 36,40,46,137,149 
McGregor, Hon. J. D. . . . 9.208 

McGregor, Prof. J. G 161 

McGregor, Rev. P. G 67 

McGregor, Rev. S. . . ... 71 

Mclnnes, Hector 131,143 

Mclntosh, Douglas 168 

McKay, Rev. Alex 101 

McKay, Donald, Elder .... 25 

McKay, G. Forrest 221 

McKay, Rev. H. B 101 

McKay, Rev. J. McG. . . . 53,86 

McKay, Roderick 9 

McKay, Hon. Thos 211 

McKay, William 8 

McKay, Rev. W. R 186 

McKenzie, Rev. Alex 78 

McKenzie, Capt. Geo. . . . 206,224 

McKenzie, Dr. G. 1 118 

McKenzie, J. J 142,159 

McKenzie, Rev. J. W 182 

McKenzie, Rev. K. J. ... 48,194 
McKinlay, Rev. John .... 41,137 

McLean, Alpine 226 

McLean, Rev. John .... 20,43 

McLean, John S 20 

McLeod, Rev. Hugh 94 

McLeod, Hon. J. D 128,211 

McLeod, Rev. J. M 18,92 

McLennan' s Brook .... 47,220 
McLennan's Mountain 

History of Churches . ... 81 

Ministers born in 83 

McMillan, Rev. John 100 

McMillan, Rev. Wm 71 

McNutt, Col 3,6 

McPhie, John 29 

McPhie, Peter 31 

Marshall, Robt., Deacon . . 17,37,212 

Marshall, Robt 212 

Matheson, David 12,124 

Matheson, Rev. J. W 181 

Matheson, Mrs. J. W 181 

Matheson, William . . . 12,157,222 

Medical Profession 105 

Merigomish 

History of Churches .... 87 

Ministers born in 88 

Methodist Church 56-67 



230 



PICTONIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD 



Middle River 


. 17 


Pictou in Politics .... 


. . 203 


History of Churches 
Ministers born in 


. 79 
. 80 


Pictou Town 
First settlers .... 


. 1-3,7-8 


Miller, Rev. E. D 
Missionaries, Women 
Mitchell, Rev. John . . . . 
Mortimer, Edward . 
Morton, Rev. John 
Morton, Dr. J. S 


. 95 
188-190 
. 41 
203,222 
183-184 
. 113 


History of Churches 
Ministers bom in ... 
Shipbuilding .... 
Business men .... 
Pioneers of Pictou 
Plainfield 
Pollock, Rev. Allan . . . 
Pottinger, David .... 
Presbyterianism .... 
Presbyterian Church . 
Presbyterian College, Halifax 
Presbytery, first .... 
Press and Printers, Pictou . 
Primrose, Dr. Alex. 


. . 61 
. 62-64 
. . 223 
. 222.223 
1-31 
. 96,168 
. 59,66 
. . 174 
. 33,177 
. 177.178 
54 
. . 40 
. . 191 
. 120 


Munro, George 
Munro, Norman L 
Murdoch, Rev. J. L 


144.198 
. 199 
43,44 
. 172 
114,207 
. 83 
. 172 
. 95 
. 94 
. 94 
. 181 
186 


Murray, Daniel A 
Murray, Dr. George . 
Murray, Hon. G. H 
Murray, Prof. Howard 
Murray, Rev. Isaac . 
Murray, Rev. John . . . . 
Murray, Rev. James . . . . 
Murray, Rev. Jas. D. . . . 
Murray, Rev R. C. 


Primrose, Hon. C. ... 
Primrose, Howard 
Primrose, James .... 
Politics 


. 211.223 
. . 223 
. . 223 
203 


Murray, Walter 
News, Pictou 


8 
. 197 


Railway, First 
Religious History of County 
Responsible Government 
Richards, Joseph .... 
River John 


. . 219 
. 33-60 
. 192,205 
. . 20 
. 41,102 


New Glasgow 
Founders of 


. 224 


History of Churches 
Ministers born in 
Shipbuilding 


65.67 
67-68 
. 224 


History of Churches 
Ministers born in ... 
Businessmen .... 


. . 102 
. . 103 
. . 222 


Business men .... 
Nicoll, Sir W. R 
Norway House 
Nova Scotia Steel Works 


224,225 
. 155 
. 222 
220-221 


Riverton 
Robertson, Rev. H. A. . . 
Robinson, C. B. . 


. . 78 
. . 182 
. 145.174 


Roddick, Rev. Geo. . . . 


. 90.101 


Officials of 1775 
Oldest Grave in County . 
Oldest Newspaper . 
Olding, Nicholas P. 


6 
. 18 
. 191 
123 


Rogers, Rev. A 


. 2.66,96 


Rogers, John 


. . 1,2 


Rogers Hill 
Roman Catholic Church . 
Rosebery Lord .... 
Ross, Rev. Alexander 
Ross, A. P 


49,94-95 
. 54.90 
. . 13 
. . 62 
. . 223 


Patrick, Rev. Wm 
Patterson, Rev. George . 173 
Patterson, Hon. Geo. G. .11 
Patterson, John 


. 42 
,195,198 
,129,208 
. 7,11 


Ross, Archibald .... 


. 226 


Ross, Rev. Duncan . . 40,46,149,218 
Ross, Rev. E 91 


Patterson, Robert 
Patterson, Rev. R. S 
New Hebrides 
Philadelphia Land Company . 
Physicians and Surgeons . 
Pictonians in the Pulpit . 
Pictonians in Foreign Fields . 
Pictonians in Medical Profession 
Pictou Academy 


1,2.3 
44.62 
177,179 
. 1.2 
105-106 
. 61 
. 177 
. 105 
135-147 
. 149 


Ross, Rev. James . . 47,52,156-157,195 
Ross, Rev. G. M 187 
Ross, Rev. R. D 73 
Ross, Donald 30 


Roy, Rev. David .... 


. 46.65 


Sabbath School, first . . . 
Saltsprings 
History of Churches 


. 34-35 
. 49,59 
. . 97 
. 98 


Pictou Educationists . 


Pictou Press 


. 191 



231 



INDEX 



Scotsburn 49,59 

History of Churches .... 94 

Ministers born in 94 

Scotch Hill 100 

Scottish Characteristics . . 33,149,203 

Scott, Rev. E 197 

Shipbuilding 223,224 

Sinclair, Rev. A. McL. . . . 70,85 

Six Mile Brook 98 

Smith, George 205 

Smith, William 19 

Smith, Rev. W. H 88 

Socrates 157 

South of Scotland People ... 14 

Springville 23-25 

History of Churches .... 70 

Ministers born in 71 

Stearns, Rev. D. M 63 

Stellarton 

History of Churches .... 76 

Ministers born in 77 

Coal industry 218 

Business men 225 

Stevenson, R. L 105 

Stewart, David 19 

Stewart, Rev. John .... 50,66 
Story of Four Students .... 159 

Stiles, John 193,194 

St. Johns, Nfd 48,214,225 

St. Pauls 25,49,73 

Sunny Brae 

First settlers 28-31 

History of Church 71 

Ministers born in 73 

Sutherland, Rev. A. ... 51,96,97 

Sutherland, Rev. Geo 67 

Sutherland, Rev. M 51,62 

Sutherland's River 

History of Church 88 

Ministers born in 89 

Tait, W. D 175 

Tanner, Chas. E 129,208 



Teachers, Pictou Academy . . 142-146 
Theological School, first in Canada 42 

Thorburn 88,89,219 

Tonge, W. C 203 

Townsend, Sir Chas 125 

Thomson, Rev. A. W 185 

Thomson, Rev. Jas. % ... 53,90 
Trenton 

History of Church .... 57,67 
Nova Scotia Steel Works . . .220 

Trinidad 183-185 

"The Bee" 194 

The Big Election 204 

The Samson 219 

Tupper, Sir C. H 210 

Union of Churches 

Union of 1817 42 

Union of 1860 59 

Union of 1875 60 

Wabana Iron Ore 220 

Walker, Rev. George 66 

Waugh, Well wood . . . . 15,17 
West Branch River John .... 98 
West River 

First settlers 15 

History of Churches .... 90 

Ministers born in 91 

West River Seminary . . 21,52,53 

Westville 218 

History of Churches .... 79 

Ministers born in 81 

Coal centre 219 

Willis, A. P 226 

Wilkins, Rev. L. M 64 

Wilkins, Hon. M. I. . . 124,194,206 

Wilson, Beckels 222 

Women Missionaries . . . 188-190 

Yarmouth Herald 193 

Yorston, Frederic 200 

Young, Rev. L. L 187 



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